The Ultimate In Birding Tours

Asia (and its islands)

SULAWESI, MOROTAI & HALMAHERA, INDONESIA – Ultimate birding around Wallace’s Line, with Obi & Bacan extension

Tuesday 10th September – Monday 30th September 2024

Leaders: Craig Robson and a local guide

21 Days Group Size Limit 7
Obi & Bacan Extension

Monday 30th September – Sunday 6th October 2024

7 Days Group Size Limit 7
Wednesday 10th September – Tuesday 30th September 2025

Leaders: Dáni Balla and a local guide

21 Days Group Size Limit 7
Obi & Bacan Extension

Tuesday 30th September – Monday 6th October 2025

7 Days Group Size Limit 7


Birdquest’s Sulawesi, Morotai & Halmahera, Indonesia birding tours, which in some years include an Obi & Bacan extension, are the number one Indonesia birding tour that you can ever take. With more endemic birds than any other in the region, our Sulawesi, Morotai & Halmahera, Indonesia birding tour offers a compelling experience, with a rich bird list and an extraordinary number of specialities.

While Charles Darwin was formulating his theories on evolution by natural selection another pioneering but much less well-known Victorian naturalist was independently developing similar concepts on the other side of the world. He was Alfred Russel Wallace and during his eight years of exploration of the Malay Archipelago (most of which is now known as Indonesia), he became the first European to visit many of the islands in this vast region. The book of his travels, The Malay Archipelago, is one of the great travel classics and thousands of species of animals and plants were first described by Wallace himself or by others using his specimens. Wallace is best remembered, however, for first discovering that the fauna and flora of the western islands in the archipelago were essentially Malaysian while in the east they were primarily of Australasian origin.

Even more surprising was his discovery that a clear division exists in the centre of the archipelago and to this day this boundary between these two very different faunal regions, which are separated by just a short distance between Borneo and Sulawesi and by as little as a few kilometres of deep water between Bali and Lombok, is known as Wallace’s Line. During our journey, we will be birding on the far side of Wallace’s Line and will be able to see for ourselves the extraordinary avifauna of ‘Wallacea’, which is so very different from that of mainland Southeast Asia and the adjacent Greater Sundas.

Until recently the magical islands of Indonesia were only visited by a few intrepid travellers and even today not too many visitors penetrate beyond Java and Bali. The very inaccessibility of much of Indonesia has led to the country being largely neglected by birdwatchers, yet Indonesia provides the adventurous with some of the richest ornithological experiences to be found anywhere in the world, for this is one of the most biologically diverse and endemic-rich areas on earth.

Our Sulawesi, Morotai & Halmahera, Indonesia birding tour is a special itinerary for those who want to see the many exciting endemics of Sulawesi, Morotai and Halmahera and is a real adventure: not especially difficult, but nothing like a ‘standard’ bird tour in more developed tropical countries! Sulawesi is now an obligatory destination for those wanting to see all the world’s bird families as it is the home of the Hylocitrea (formerly known as Yellow-flanked Whistler), which is now considered to be a monotypic family.

Our Sulawesi, Morotai & Halmahera tour begins at Makassar in southern Sulawesi, an island formerly known as the Celebes and shaped rather like a four-legged starfish. During our time on this island of lofty mountains, cool mossy highland forests, misty lakes, fertile valleys with lush green rice paddies, and luxuriant lowland rainforests, we will visit four of Indonesia’s finest forest reserves, Lore Lindu, Gunung Ambang, Dumoga-Bone and Tangkoko, finding a large proportion of Sulawesi’s 70 or so endemic birds.

Beginning close to Makassar we will search for our first exciting endemics, including the highly-localized Lompobattang Flycatcher, Lompobattang Leaf Warbler and Black-ringed White-eye, and perhaps Sulawesi Streaked Flycatcher, as well as the splendid Sulawesi Dwarf Hornbill and the strange and highly-vocal Piping Crow.

We will travel next to the vast endemic-rich montane forests of Lore Lindu, where endemics will come thick and fast, often including Dwarf Sparrowhawk, Cinnabar Boobook, the brilliantly-named Satanic (or Diabolical) Nightjar, Red-eared Fruit-Dove, the amazing Knobbed Hornbill, the superb Purple-bearded Bee-eater, the strange Malia, Maroon-backed Whistler, the enigmatic Hylocitrea, the unique Sulawesi Thrush, superb Fiery-browed and Sulawesi Crested Mynas and many more! With luck, we’ll even find the elusive Geomalia.

At Dumoga-Bone National Park and at Gunung Mahawu and Gunung Ambang, we will hope to find the extraordinary Maleo as well as a number of other exciting endemics which may include the superb Scaly-breasted Kingfisher, Speckled Boobook, Pied Cuckooshrike and the localized Matinan Flycatcher.

At Tangkoko, which will be the finale for Sulawesi, we will explore the wonderful forests where, among many other new birds, Yellow-breasted Racquet-tail, Ochre-bellied Boobook, Purple-winged Roller, Great-billed, Green-backed, Sulawesi Lilac and Sulawesi Dwarf Kingfishers, Sulawesi Pitta and the splendid Red-backed Thrush will be high on our want lists. We will also enjoy the weird Spectral Tarsiers and Sulawesi Black (or Celebes Crested) Macaques.

Next, we explore the island of Morotai in the northern Moluccas, home to the endemic Dusky (or Morotai) Friarbird and the endemic Morotai White-eye, as well as endemic forms of Common Paradise Kingfisher, Ivory-breasted Pitta, Halmahera Paradise-crow and Spangled Drongo that may be elevated to species status by the IOC in the future.

The last part of our Sulawesi, Morotai & Halmahera, Indonesia birding tour will bring us to Halmahera, the largest island of the Moluccas, the fabled ‘Spice Islands’. Situated between Sulawesi and West Papua (the Indonesian part of New Guinea), Halmahera has a much greater Australasian element in its avifauna than Sulawesi and an equally rich selection of endemics, including the famous Standardwing (or Wallace’s Standardwing), one of the most exotic of the birds of paradise. We will even be able to watch this fabulous bird at a display site, as well as see a host of other little-known birds, including the stunning Ivory-breasted Pitta, the weird Moluccan Owlet-Nightjar, Moluccan and Dusky Megapodes, Sombre Kingfisher and a colourful collection of pigeons (including Blue-capped, Scarlet-breasted and Grey-headed Fruit-Doves) and parrots (including Chattering and Violet-necked Lorys, Great-billed Parrot and White Cockatoo), as well as many more.

By the end of the tour, we shall all be reluctant to leave these wonderful, faraway islands behind us.

During the optional extension, which is only available in certain years, we will explore the remote island of Obi in the central Moluccas, the site of a highly successful Birdquest Expedition back in 2016. The endemic targets here include Moluccan (or Obi) Woodcock, Carunculated Fruit Dove, Obi Paradise-crow, Reddish-tinged Myzomela and Cinnamon-breasted (or Obi) Whistler, all of which we should see. This is an ornithologically poorly known island and there are a number of other endemic taxa (some as yet undescribed) on Obi which are likely to be raised to full species status in the future by the IOC. Birds of the Indonesian Archipelago already splits ‘Obi Myzomela’, ‘Obi Fantail’, ‘Obi Spangled Drongo’, ‘Obi Golden Bulbul’ and ‘Obi White-eye’.

We will also visit Bacan, home to the endemic Bacan Myzomela. There are also an undescribed form of the Spangled Drongo complex (‘Bacan Spangled Drongo’) and ‘Bacan White-eye’ (currently included in Cream-throated White-eye by the IOC), both of which are already split in Birds of the Indonesian Archipelago. The margarethae form of the Common Paradise Kingfisher may also merit species status.

Birdquest has operated Sulawesi birding tours and Halmahera birding tours in Indonesia since 1990.

Obi and Bacan Extension Note: Bookings on this particular extension are accepted on the basis that you will still go ahead with the main Sulawesi, Morotai & Halmahera tour if there are only one or two bookings for the extension (or you can opt to pay a significant supplement to allow the extension to go ahead).

Accommodation & Road Transport: The hotels used are of good or medium standard. A few nights are spent in very simple guesthouses (occasionally with shared bathroom facilities). During the Obi & Bacan extension, the two nights on the ferries are in quite comfortable twin-berth cabins with air-conditioning. Road transport is by small coach, minibus/passenger van or cars. Roads are variable in quality.

Walking: The walking effort during our Sulawesi, Morotai& Halmahera, Indonesia birding tour is mostly easy, sometimes moderate, but there will be two harder days in Lore Lindu (where a two or three-hour walk is now required to reach some of the birding areas owing to the road no longer being passable to vehicles). There is one optional long uphill walk on Obi.

Climate: Most days in the lowlands will be hot, dry and sunny, but overcast conditions are fairly frequent and some rain, heavy at times, can be expected. In montane areas, it will range from very cool to warm. The humidity is often rather high.

Bird Photography: Opportunities during our Sulawesi, Morotai & Halmahera, Indonesia birding tour are worthwhile.


  • The chance to get to grips with one of Asia’s richest assemblages of stunning and colourful endemics
  • Trying to see just how many species of kingfisher we can see on one tour, from Green-backed, Scaly-breasted and Sulawesi Lilac, to Sombre and Sulawesi Dwarf
  • The chance to see a superb range of endemic nightbirds, from Minahassa and Sulawesi Masked Owls to no fewer than five species of boobook and the hauntingly-named Satanic Nightjar!
  • Walking the Anaso Track in search of Sulawesi’s rarest and most sought-after birds – the strange Geomalia, the monotypic, berry-loving Hylocitrea and lovely Purple-bearded Bee-eater
  • A superb roller duo - Purple-winged on Sulawesi and the rare Azure (or Purple) on Halmahera
  • Well-guided encounters with the amazing Maleo at its best-preserved volcanic breeding location
  • The boom of Sombre Pigeon in the background as we search for the subtle Matalan Flycatcher at Gunung Ambang
  • Standing amidst a nonchalant feeding troupe of endangered Sulawesi Black (or Celebes Crested) Macaques at Tangkoko
  • Tolkienesque, boggle-eyed Spectral Tarsiers, leaping out from their arboreal retreat to feed on insects at dusk.
  • A rare chance to set foot on little-visited Morotai, with its suite of endemics – Dusky Friarbird and Morotai White-eye to name but two
  • Walking in the footsteps of Alfred Russel Wallace, as we head for Halmahera in the Spice Islands
  • A nocturnal foray to a secluded beach, where rare Moluccan Megapodes come to lay their eggs under the stars
  • Inspired at dawn by the amazing sounds and sight of displaying Standardwings; thrilled at night by creepy Moluccan Owlet-Nightjars!
  • Fantastic flocks of White (or Umbrella) Cockatoos calling raucously from their remote forested ridge-lines
  • A monster of a pitta flashes up to perch on a branch – the hulking great Ivory-breasted
  • Some of the World’s most stunning butterflies like Wallace’s Golden and Halmahera Birdwings, Silky Owl and Blanchard’s Tree Nymph!
  • Being some of the first birders to set foot on the remote and densely forest island of Obi, home to the remarkable Carunculated Fruit Dove and the fantastic Moluccan Woodcock


  • Day 1: Morning tour start at Makassar airport. Drive to Malino.
  • Day 2: Lompobattang range, then return to Makassar.
  • Day 3: Karaenta Forest. Afternoon flight to Palu. Drive to Lore Lindu National Park.
  • Days 4-6: Lore Lindu National Park.
  • Day 7: Lore Lindu, then return to Palu. Flight to Manado. Drive to Tomohon.
  • Day 8: Gunung Mahawu, then drive to Kotamobagu.
  • Days 9-10: Dumoga-Bone National Park. Overnights at Kotamobagu.
  • Day 11: Gunung Ambang, then drive via Manado to Tangkoko.
  • Day 12: Tangkoko National Park.
  • Day 13: Tangkoko, then return to Manado.
  • Day 14: Flight to Morotai island.
  • Day 15: Morotai, then by ferry to Tobelo in Halmahera.
  • Day 16: Drive to Subaim.
  • Day 17: Subaim area.
  • Day 18: Subaim, then travel to Foli.
  • Day 19: Foli area.
  • Day 20: Foli, then travel to Sidangoli.
  • Day 21: Sidangoli, then by road and boat to Ternate. Afternoon tour end.
  • Day 1: Overnight ferry from Ternate to Obi.
  • Day 2: Arrive at Obi.
  • Days 3-4: Exploring Obi.
  • Day 5: By boat to Bacan.
  • Day 6: Bacan, then overnight ferry to Ternate.
  • Day 7: Morning tour end at Ternate airport.

To see a larger map, click on the square-like ‘enlarge’ icon in the upper right of the map box.

To see (or hide) the ‘map legend’, click on the icon with an arrow in the upper left of the map box.

To change to a satellite view, which is great for seeing the physical terrain (and for seeing really fine details by repetitive use of the + button), click on the square ‘map view’ icon in the lower left corner of the ‘map legend’.


Birdquest Inclusions: Our tour prices include surface transportation, accommodations, meals and entrance fees.

We also include all tipping for local guides, drivers and accommodation/restaurant staff.

We also include these flights: Makassar-Palu, Palu-Manado and Manado-Morotai.

Deposit: 20% of the total tour price. Our office will let you know what deposit amount is due, in order to confirm your booking, following receipt of your online booking form.

TO BOOK THIS TOUR: Click here (you will need the tour dates)

2024: confirmed £5990, $7690, €6990, AUD11610. Makassar/Ternate.
Obi & Bacan Extension: £1550, $1990, €1810, AUD3000. Ternate/Ternate.
2025: provisional £6070, $7790, €7080, AUD11760. Makassar/Ternate.
Obi & Bacan Extension: £1550, $1990, €1810, AUD3000. Ternate/Ternate.

Single Supplement: 2024: £480, $620, €560, AUD930.
Obi & Bacan Extension: £90, $120, €100, AUD180.
Single Supplement: 2025: £480, $620, €560, AUD930.
Obi & Bacan Extension: £90, $120, €100, AUD180.

The single supplement will not apply if you indicate on booking that you prefer to share a room and there is a room-mate of the same sex available.

Some of the smaller guesthouses have limited rooms. Anyone having to share unexpectedly at any of these will receive an appropriate refund.

The Obi extension single supplement excludes the two nights on the ferries.

This tour is priced in US Dollars. Amounts shown in other currencies are indicative.

Air Travel To & From The Tour: Our in-house IATA ticket agency will be pleased to arrange your air travel on request, or you may arrange this yourself if you prefer.


Sulawesi, Morotai & Halmahera: Day 1  Our Sulawesi & Halmahera birding tour begins this morning at Makassar airport in southeastern Sulawesi.

From Makassar (also known as Ujung Pandang) we will drive to Malino for an overnight stay.

Our first birds are likely to include House Swift, Pacific and Barn Swallows, and Eurasian Tree Sparrow. If we arrive in the Malino area in time we will start our exploration of the area late this afternoon.

Sulawesi, Morotai & Halmahera: Day 2  Today we will explore the Lompobattang range in search of the endemic Lompobattang Flycatcher and Lompobattang Leaf Warbler and also the very localized Black-ringed White-eye, a species restricted to southern Sulawesi. In addition, the local forms of Red-eared Fruit Dove and Hylocitrea are also sometimes treated as full species. We will also have a first encounter with a number of more widespread Sulawesi birds.

Afterwards, we will return to Makassar for an overnight stay.

In open areas near Makassar, we will find a number of open country species including Yellow-vented Bulbul, White-shouldered Triller, Pied Bushchat and Zitting Cisticola. Overhead, Uniform and Glossy Swiftlets are likely to be present.

We may also have time while in the Makassar area to explore an area of fishponds and wet paddies. This productive area often holds large numbers of wetland species, including Javan Pond Heron, Little Egret, Eastern Cattle Egret, Sunda Teal and a variety of shorebirds. Pied (or White-headed) Stilts are often common and a number of more interesting species, such as Terek and Marsh Sandpipers and Red-necked and Long-toed Stints, can often be found among the more common Pacific Golden and Little Ringed Plovers, Eurasian Whimbrels, Common Redshanks, Common Greenshanks, and Wood, Common and Curlew Sandpipers, whilst drier areas sometimes attract Australian Pratincoles. We will also be on the lookout for scarcer species such as Greater Sand Plover, Grey-tailed Tattler, Far Eastern Curlew and Great Knot. Recently we have encountered Javan Plovers and it appears that a hitherto unknown population of this species breeds in this part of Sulawesi. If we are able to be present at dusk we may see Savanna Nightjar, which is relatively common in the area.

Sulawesi, Morotai & Halmahera: Day 3  This morning we shall visit Karaenta Forest, a remnant forest on limestone outcrops situated close to Makassar. Here we may encounter the endemic and newly-described Sulawesi Streaked (or Sulawesi Brown) Flycatcher. There is also a backup opportunity for Black-ringed White-eye. The local form of the Green-backed Kingfisher is sometimes split as Black-headed Kingfisher and we have a good chance of an encounter.

A number of other Sulawesi endemics also occur here. In particular, we will be keeping a keen eye out for the stunning Sulawesi Hornbill and Piping Crow (which has some of the most amazing vocalizations of any corvid) as these are both species that can be hard to come by elsewhere. Sulawesi Babblers (one of the very few babblers to be found east of Wallace’s Line) will be singing from the undergrowth, noisy Hair-crested Drongos call from the roadside (the distinctive form here has white eyes and is sometimes split as White-eyed Spangled Drongo) and the canopy is home to the semi-nocturnal Azure-rumped Parrot, White-necked Myna (of the southern Sulawesi form albicollis), Grey-sided and Yellow-sided Flowerpeckers, and Black Sunbirds while Grey-rumped Tree Swifts patrol above the forest.

The endemic Moor Macaque can often be seen by the roadside.

This afternoon we take a flight to Palu in western Sulawesi, from where we will drive to Lore Lindu National Park for a four nights stay.

Sulawesi, Morotai & Halmahera: Days 4-6  Lore Lindu is the largest and finest of Sulawesi’s national parks. Much of this magnificent reserve comprises high, rugged mountains, many of which are still densely covered with montane forest, but lowland habitats are also represented. It is the wide range of altitudes within the park and the diversity of habitats which make Lore Lindu so rich in birds and a large number of Sulawesi’s endemic species can be seen here. Sadly, however, large numbers of people have settled in the park in recent years, and as a consequence, much of the forest on the lower slopes has been cleared and the outlook for this magnificent area (or at least the more accessible portions) does not look rosy! The forest on the upper slopes is still mostly intact, and on the slopes of Gunung Rorekatimbu (2509m), the highest peak in the park, we will search for a number of upper montane specialities amidst forest which at the highest levels is dominated by a variety of conifers. Lower down we will find mid-montane forest with trees up to 40m tall and a quite different selection of birds. At the lowest altitudes, there is still some lowland rainforest, although inevitably it is these areas which have been most disturbed by logging and by recent settlement and its associated slash and burn. The lower valleys are largely cultivated and provide a pleasantly tranquil setting as we look for a number of open country species. By exploring these different habitats we will ensure that we see a wide range of species during our stay.

In densely forested areas, the forest edges are often the most productive, especially in the early morning, and we shall take full advantage of the dirt roads and logging trails through the forest. Sulawesi Hawk-Eagles sweep low over the forest, noisy, acrobatic flocks of Golden-mantled Racquet-tails fly swiftly over the canopy and Purple Needletails soar high above us. If we are in luck we will also encounter the scarce Barred (or Sulawesi) Honey Buzzard.

One of our prime targets will be the magnificent Purple-bearded Bee-eater (surely one of the world’s most striking bee-eaters), a few pairs of which breed in banks formed when the logging roads were constructed. We will look for fruiting trees as these are the best places to find specialist fruit-eaters such as gorgeous Red-eared and Superb Fruit Doves (the latter of the western form temminckii), lethargic White-bellied and Grey-headed Imperial Pigeons, and Sultan’s Cuckoo-Dove. Flowering trees are favoured by a variety of flowerpeckers and honeyeaters, including the endemic Dark-eared and White-eared Myzas (or Lesser Sulawesi and Greater Sulawesi Honeyeaters). In the forest interior, we will peer into the thick undergrowth hoping to glimpse two of the park’s shyest inhabitants, Great Shortwing and Sulawesi Bush Warbler, two seldom-seen forest floor skulkers.

Mixed flocks at higher altitudes hold a selection of highly sought endemics, often led by the curious and noisy Malia (taxonomists first debated whether it was a babbler or a bulbul, but the most recent thinking is that it is a grassbird!). The secretive Sulawesi Thrush is sometimes found with the Malias, whilst Sulawesi Drongos, Pygmy and Cerulean Cuckooshrikes are never far away.

Parties of smaller birds often include Blue-fronted, Little Pied and Turquoise Flycatchers, Citrine Canary-flycatcher, Sulawesi Leaf Warbler, Rusty-bellied Fantail, Sulphur-vented (or Yellow-vented) Whistler, Crimson-crowned Flowerpecker, Warbling and Streak-headed White-eyes, and the secretive Blue-faced Parrotfinch.

A major Sulawesi speciality, the enigmatic Hylocitrea (formerly known as Yellow-flanked Whistler, but now treated as a monotypic family and therefore a must-see bird for the family collectors!), also occurs in these bird parties.

Other species we will seek in the higher reaches of the park include the feisty Dwarf (or Small) Sparrowhawk, gaudy Ornate and Yellow-cheeked (or Citrine) Lorikeets, the striking Ivory-backed Woodswallow, Maroon-backed Whistler, Sulawesi Blue and Snowy-browed Flycatchers, Sulawesi Myzomela, the delightful Fiery-browed Myna and the flighty Mountain Serin (the distinctive and undescribed form here has a bright orange rump).

At lower altitudes, we shall search the remaining forest patches for a number of submontane endemics and specialities including the seldom-seen Jerdon’s Baza, Sulawesi Serpent Eagle, Black and Rufous-bellied Eagles, Sulawesi Cicadabird, Sulawesi Triller, Short-tailed Starling, Sulawesi Crested (or Short-crested) Myna and Lemon-bellied White-eye.

Amongst the many other species we may see during our time in the park are Spot-tailed Sparrowhawk, Spotted Kestrel, Rusty-breasted Cuckoo, Sulawesi Swiftlet and Sulawesi Pygmy Woodpecker.

At night we will have our first chance to look for Sulawesi Scops Owl, Speckled Boobook and the rare and little known Cinnabar Boobook. We may well find the uncommon and poorly known Satanic (or Diabolical) Nightjar at its day roost.

With luck, we will encounter one or more of the park’s rarer inhabitants such as Sulawesi Ground Dove, Sulawesi Cuckoo and the terrestrial Geomalia.

Sulawesi, Morotai & Halmahera: Day 7  After some final birding in Lore Lindu National Park we will return to Palu. As we drive through the Palu Valley we will stop to check through the flocks of Chestnut and Scaly-breasted Munias for the localized Black-faced and Pale-headed Munias, and we may well see Eastern Yellow Wagtail.

From Palu, we will take a flight to Manado, a town situated on the long, snaking tentacle that forms the northern extremity of the strangely-shaped island of Sulawesi, and then drive to Tomohon for an overnight stay.

Sulawesi, Morotai & Halmahera: Day 8  Today we will visit the slopes of Gunung Mahawu, which offers our best chances for the shy and poorly-known endemic Scaly-breasted Kingfisher. After our search for this special birds, we will continue to Kotamobagu for a three nights stay.

Sulawesi, Morotai & Halmahera: Days 9-10  Dumoga-Bone is primarily an area of lowland rainforest, although there is also some montane forest on the slopes of the surrounding mountains. Here clear rivers rush through the remaining rainforest which, as in most of the country, is under severe pressure from human exploitation!

Our main quest at Dumoga-Bone will be the rare and elusive Maleo, surely the strangest member of the megapode family. Maleos lay their eggs colonially in the ground in areas where the soil is heated volcanically. In this way, the eggs can be left to incubate themselves completely unattended and the youngsters are able to fly strongly almost as soon as they come out of the egg! Unfortunately, predation, especially by humans, takes a massive toll (almost all the nesting grounds are known to the local people). At Dumoga-Bone many of the eggs are taken to be reared in the safety of a hatchery, ensuring a considerably higher success rate than in the wild. Mercifully, in spite of the most recent bout of economic difficulties in Indonesia that led to such projects being temporarily closed down, making the future of this wonderful species highly precarious, numbers have bounced back and many birds now visit to lay their eggs.

There is a high degree of overlap between Dumoga-Bone and Tangkoko National Park, so we will have a first opportunity to see many of the species listed for that area. Additional forest species we may well see in Dumoga Bone National Park include the vocal Oberholser’s Fruit Dove and the canopy-loving Pied Cuckooshrike.

After dusk, we have the chance to find Sulawesi Masked Owl and another chance for the rather cute Speckled Boobook.

Mammals are not conspicuous in Dumoga-Bone, but we may encounter Gorontalo Macaque.

In the open country around Dumoga Bone we should find a number of other species such as Great and Intermediate Egrets, Wandering Whistling Duck, Spotted Harrier, Buff-banded and Barred Rails, White-browed Crake and White-breasted Waterhen and if we are fortunate we will find Rufous Night Heron or Lesser Fish Eagle.

Sulawesi, Morotai & Halmahera: Day 11  This morning we will start early and explore some of the surviving montane forest in Gunung Ambang National Park. Here we will endeavour to find the localized Matinan Flycatcher, an endemic species restricted to the montane forests of the Minahassa Peninsula (the north-eastern ‘arm’ of the Sulawesi ‘starfish’) and we also have another chance to encounter the beautiful but elusive Scaly-breasted Kingfisher. We also have a second chance for Cinnabar Boobook here and if we are really in luck we will come across the seldom-seen Sombre Pigeon. We may also find the distinctive local subspecies of Malia as well as a number of other montane species we should have already have observed.

Afterwards, we will drive back to Manado and then on to Tangkoko for a two nights stay

Sulawesi, Morotai & Halmahera: Day 12  Tangkoko National Park has fared rather better than many of Sulawesi’s lowland forests and much remains intact. Here, we will spend much of our time exploring the excellent trails through the extensive forest in pursuit of a number of specialities. High on our want list will be a series of gorgeous kingfishers. Green-backed Kingfisher can often be detected shortly before dawn by its siren-like whistles, the rather odd-looking Sulawesi Lilac Kingfisher sits sedately in the mid-storey whilst the tiny Sulawesi Dwarf Kingfisher often sits motionless in the understorey. With luck, we will also come across both the attractive Ruddy Kingfisher and the aptly-named Great-billed Kingfisher.

Tangkoko has much more to offer than its kingfishers though. A number of other Sulawesi endemics also occur and our two days here will provide an excellent chance to catch up with any of Sulawesi’s magical avifauna that we are still looking for.

Additional endemics and specialities that we may well encounter in the forested areas include White-faced Cuckoo-Dove, the beautiful Black-naped Fruit Dove, Grey-cheeked Green Pigeon, Green Imperial Pigeon (of the rusty-naped paulina form), Silver-tipped Imperial Pigeon, Yellow-breasted Racquet-tail (an excellent vocalist), Great (or Large Sulawesi) Hanging Parrot, Black-billed Koel and Bay Coucal (both are far easier to hear than see!), the colourful Yellow-billed Malkoha and equally attractive Purple-winged Roller, the magnificent Knobbed Hornbill, the impressive Ashy Woodpecker, Pale Blue Monarch and Grosbeak Starling (an incredible-looking species, with waxy red feathers on its rump, that nests in large colonies in dead trees in tower-block fashion!).

We should also come across a few of the more difficult species such as the shy Philippine (or Tabon) Scrubfowl, the colourful Sulawesi Pitta, the splendid Red-backed Thrush and Pygmy (or Small Sulawesi) Hanging Parrot.

The coastal scrub and grasslands at Tangkoko are excellent for two more endemics, namely the shy Isabelline Bush-hen and White-rumped Cuckooshrike (both of which are endemic to the Sulawesi region).

At dusk, we should see the huge, harrier-like Great Eared Nightjar floating over the forest and we should also be able to find the endemic Sulawesi Nightjar. We will also have more opportunities to look for Sulawesi Scops Owl and Ochre-bellied Boobook should we need them.

Tangkoko is also an interesting place for mammals, with the great-ape-like Sulawesi Black (or Celebes Crested) Macaque, Sulawesi Bear Cuscus and the diminutive Spectral Tarsier likely to be seen during our visit.

More widespread species we are likely to encounter in forest or grassland habitats include the elusive Stephan’s Dove, Lesser Coucal, Sooty-headed Bulbul, Black-naped Oriole, Slender-billed Crow (the local form is sometimes split as Sulawesi Crow), Golden-bellied Gerygone, White-breasted Woodswallow, Brown-throated and Olive-backed Sunbirds, and Black-crowned White-eye.

Along the coast, or during our boat trip, we may well encounter Great and Lesser Frigatebirds, Pacific Reef Egret, Striated (or Little) Heron, Brahminy Kite, the huge White-bellied Sea-Eagle, Common, Black-naped, White-winged and Little Terns, Pink-necked Green Pigeon and Collared, Sacred and Common Kingfishers.

Sulawesi, Morotai & Halmahera: Day 13  After spending much of the day at Tangkoko we will return to Manado for an overnight stay. The mangroves near our hotel will give us further chances for Great-billed Kingfisher, White-rumped Cuckooshrike and White-rumped (or Sulawesi) Triller.

Sulawesi, Morotai & Halmahera: Day 14  This morning we will take a short flight to the island of Morotai in the northern Moluccas, situated off the much larger island of Halmahera, where we will spend the night.

This afternoon we will begin our exploration of Morotai, which is home to the endemic Morotai (or Dusky) Friarbird, a species that is now thought to be restricted to Morotai rather than also occurring on Halmahera or Bacan, and the endemic Morotai White-eye. The island also holds endemic forms of Ivory-breasted Pitta, Spangled Drongo and Paradise-crow that could be split in the future.

Sulawesi, Morotai & Halmahera: Day 15  After spending the morning on Morotai, we will cross by ferry to the town of Tobelo in northern Halmahera for an overnight stay.

During the crossing, we will be looking out for Bulwer’s Petrel and both Bridled and Greater Crested Terns. There are also possibilities for Brown and Red-footed Boobies, Long-tailed Skua, Brown Noddy, Aleutian Tern, Spinner Dolphin and Short-finned Pilot Whale.

Halmahera is by far the largest island of the Moluccan archipelago (now known as Maluku) with a contorted shape not unlike a small version of Sulawesi. The Moluccas are famed as the ‘Spice Islands’ and in the 15th and 16th centuries completely dominated the world trade in cloves, nutmeg and mace. Halmahera consists largely of a series of hills that were, until recently, clothed in relatively undisturbed rainforest. Pressure on the land here is becoming intense and many of the island’s fantastic endemics are now threatened by forest clearance. The local population is concentrated on the coastal plains where coconut and sago palm plantations are interspersed with areas of grassland and scrub.

Halmahera lies further to the east of Wallace’s Line than Sulawesi and consequently its avifauna contains a higher proportion of Australasian elements. Few birdwatchers have visited Halmahera, yet some of the world’s rarest and least known birds occur here, including many endemics.

This evening we will make an excursion to some volcanic black-sand beaches north of Tobelo. Our target species, the rare and seldom seen Moluccan Megapode (or Moluccan Scrubfowl), comes to the beaches at night to lay its eggs. Numbers coming each night fluctuate greatly and we will need some luck to see one of these globally threatened birds illuminated in the spotlight beam.

Sulawesi, Morotai & Halmahera: Day 16  This morning we will travel southwards to the remote settlement of Subaim for a four nights stay in each. This afternoon we will begin our exploration of the surrounding area.

Sulawesi, Morotai & Halmahera: Days 17-19  The forests in the Subaim area have been partially logged fairly recently yet are still remarkably rich in birdlife, with some areas still barely touched by timber extraction. Needless to say, access to the forest has been facilitated by the construction of roads, and it is from these that we will explore the area.

The magnificent and rare Standardwing (or Wallace’s Standardwing) was made famous by David Attenborough’s birds of paradise film, and we will visit one of its display trees. This extraordinary bird of paradise only occurs on Halmahera and neighbouring Bacan and was for many years thought to be extinct until its rediscovery in the 1980s, and this is indeed our prime reason for visiting this area. As we wait under the tree at dawn, we will first hear the loud display calls as the first glimmers of light appear through the canopy. As the sun rises, the activity rapidly increases and gradually our monotone surroundings will gain colour as flashes of glistening green breast-shields and orange legs will be seen. Before we know it, we will be engrossed in the spectacular display going on just a few metres above us. Males, with white standards sticking out in all directions, call loudly and suddenly leap into the air before parachuting back down to their perch in the hope of attracting a rather drab female. When one appears, she causes a near riot as rival males tussle over the ultimate prize! This is what we will all have been waiting for and none of us will be disappointed!

There are still good numbers of pigeons and parrots here, and we will likely see Blue-capped, Scarlet-breasted and Grey-headed Fruit-Doves, Spectacled, Cinnamon-bellied and Pied Imperial Pigeons, Red-flanked Lorikeet, Chattering Lory (declining owing to trapping), Moluccan Hanging Parrot, Great-billed Parrot, White Cockatoo (still fairly common in spite of ongoing clearance), Violet-necked Lory, Moluccan King Parrot and both Red-cheeked and Eclectus Parrots. We will also be eager to see North Moluccan Pitta and in particular the stunning Ivory-breasted Pitta (the aptly named Pitta maxima!). Its wolf-whistle-like calls will echo around the forest and before too long we should be able to track down this most impressive species.

We should also find Pacific Baza, Variable (or Grey-throated) Goshawk, the impressive Gurney’s Eagle, Pygmy Eagle, the secretive Dusky Megapode, Brush Cuckoo, the huge Goliath Coucal, Moustached Tree Swift, Sombre, Beach, Azure, Blue-and-white and Moluccan Dwarf Kingfishers, the attractive Common Paradise Kingfisher, Oriental Dollarbird, the huge Blyth’s Hornbill, Moluccan, Halmahera and White-bellied Cuckooshrikes, Common Cicadabird, Rufous-bellied Triller, Northern Golden Bulbul, Island Leaf Warbler (the local form may well be split in future as Halmahera Leaf Warbler), Moluccan and Shining Flycatchers, the delightful White-naped and Moluccan Monarchs, Willie Wagtail, Black-chinned Whistler, the aptly-named Drab Whistler, Halmahera Flowerpecker, the perky Halmahera White-eye, Spangled Drongo (the local form is sometimes split as Halmahera Spangled Drongo), Dusky-brown Oriole, Long-billed Crow, Halmahera Paradise-crow (which is not a crow but a bird of paradise!), Moluccan and Metallic Starlings, and White-streaked Friarbird.

With luck, we will also find one or two of the rarer species, such as Moluccan Goshawk, Great Cuckoo-Dove, Nicobar Pigeon, Moluccan Dwarf Kingfisher, Azure (or Purple) Dollarbird or even Invisible Rail.

In the evenings we will look for Halmahera’s impressive selection of nightbirds. Nightbirding here is exciting and we have a great chance of finding Moluccan Scops Owl, Halmahera Boobook, Large-tailed Nightjar and the weird and elusive Moluccan Owlet-Nightjar. Barking Owl is a possibility too.

Sulawesi, Morotai & Halmahera: Day 20  After some final birding in the Subaim area we will head southwards to Sidangoli, from where we will have a magnificent view across to the smouldering volcanic cone of Ternate, surrounded by coral reefs amid a deep blue sea. From Sidangoli we take a boat across to Ternate for an overnight stay.

Ternate is little more than a huge smoking volcano rising to over 1700m. The perfectly-shaped cone, which last erupted in 1987, is one of a chain of small volcanoes which guard the western approaches to Halmahera. Ternate was formerly of vital importance as one of the world’s few sources of cloves, but today it is a little-visited backwater with only the crumbling remains of its colonial past as a reminder of its one-time significance. It does, however, host the only major airport and inter-island ferry terminus in the area.

Sulawesi, Morotai & Halmahera: Day 21  Our tour will end this morning at Ternate airport.



Obi & Bacan: Day 1  This evening we will depart by overnight ferry from Ternate to the large but little-visited island of Obi, which lies in the central Moluccas to the south of Ternate.

Obi & Bacan: Days 2-4  During our explorations on Obi, a very rarely birded part of Indonesia where we will stay for three nights, we will be wanting to see the five endemics currently recognized by the IOC: Moluccan (or Obi) Woodcock (a species known also from a single record from Bacan, situated to the southwest of Halmahera), Carunculated Fruit Dove, Obi Paradise-crow, Red-tinged Myzomela and Cinnamon-breasted (or Obi) Whistler, all of which we should see.

In addition, Obi has a series of distinctive forms, a number of which are likely to be recognized as full species by the IOC in the future. These include the Obi forms of Cinnamon-bellied Imperial Pigeon (obiensis), Common Paradise Kingfisher (obiensis), Violet-necked Lory (obiensis), Chattering Lory (flavopalliatus, also found on Bacan and other islands), Northern Golden Bulbul (lucasi), Spangled Drongo (guillemardi), Northern Fantail (obiensis) and Island Leaf Warbler (waterstradti, also occurring on Bacan). Birds of the Indonesian Archipelago already treats ‘Obi Golden Bulbul’, ‘Obi Spangled Drongo’, ‘Obi Fantail’ and ‘Obi White-eye’ as endemic species and includes the leaf warbler in North Moluccan Leaf Warbler. In addition, there is an as-yet-undescribed myzomela (‘Obi Myzomela’) which is surely a distinct species and an undescribed form of white-eye known as ‘Obi White-eye’.

Obi & Bacan: Day 5  Today we will cross over to the island of Bacan, situated not far to the north of Obi, for an overnight stay. Bacan holds the endemic Bacan Myzomela as well as ‘Bacan Spangled Drongo’ (an undescribed form) and ‘Bacan White-eye’ (lumped by IOC in Cream-throated White-eye), both of which are already split in Birds of the Indonesian Archipelago. The endemic margarethae form of the Common Paradise Kingfisher may also merit species status.

Obi & Bacan: Day 6  After some final birding on Bacan we will return by overnight ferry to Ternate.

Obi & Bacan: Day 7  The tour ends this morning at Ternate airport.


by Dave Farrow

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Other Indonesia (excluding West Papua) birding tours by Birdquest include: