20 - 30 April 2024

by Pete Morris

Hidden away in the centre of the vast Pacific Ocean, the tiny chain of islands that form Hawaii are home to a unique but severely threatened avifauna. Radiocarbon-dating points to mass human-era extinction, 800-2000 years ago, and since the arrival of man in the islands the devastated Hawaiian avifauna has been battered by almost every conceivable threat from hunting by early settlers (the Polynesians’ ceremonial cloaks contained the feathers of many thousands of individual birds!), forest clearance (less than 40% of land is now covered by native-dominated vegetation), introduced predators (rats, cats, dogs and mongooses – except for Kauai in the case of the latter), browsing animals (pigs, deer and goats introduced for hunting), introduced plants (notably gorse, which prevents the recovery of the native forest), introduced birds (many of which out-compete the native birds) and arthropods (ants and wasps), and of course disturbance by the increasing human population. Also, an unlikely and unlucky series of events led to the introduction of avian malaria, a disease that the native birds had little or no defence against. As a result, not much of the avifauna survived, and the species that did, receded to the higher areas where the mosquitoes could not survive. More than half of the original Hawaiian Honeycreepers (Drepanidae – now finches!) are extinct, the entire family of Oos (Mohoidae) are gone and overall only a fraction of the original endemics survive today. And how one would love to be able to travel in a Tardis and see what used to be there… it must have been an incredible place! Some resistance to the malaria (one of the biggest current threats to many species) has since developed in some of the species, but for others, global warming is making them more and more vulnerable, as milder temperatures allow the mosquitoes to creep further up the mountains, and indeed on Kauai, they have now tragically got to the top. As a result, even some of the commoner species, such as the stunning Iiwi, are increasingly under threat and may be uplisted from Vulnerable to Endangered in the not too distant future.

With that depressing thought out of the way, one has to re-orientate one’s ambitions based on what is currently achievable, and even this is diminishing on an almost year by year basis. The two toughies on Maui – Maui Parrotbill and Akohekoh are now more or less off limits, and the series of Kauai endemics only remain in the most remote areas and are barely extant. Indeed without extremely fast action, another four endemics may well be lost forever within the next couple of years! That said, we did manage to find all of the currently ‘gettable’ goodies, with the exception of those on Kauai, where three species that were still gettable until recently were missed. Out of the respectable total of just 97 species that we recorded, a shocking 40 or so species are introductions to the islands! Of the remaining 57, no fewer than 25 are species of conservation concern! Three are classified by Birdlife International as Critically Endangered: Newell’s Shearwater; Palila (the last of Hawaii’s grosbeak honeycreepers); and Puaiohi (Kauai Small Thrush, one of Hawaii’s two remaining solitaires, that we sadly only heard). A further seven are classified as Endangered: Hawaiian Petrel; Maui Creeper (Alauahio); Akiapolaau (with its amazing bill); Anianiau; Hawaii Creeper; Hawaii Akepa (the only hole-nesting honeycreeper); and Kauai Amakihi. On top of that, another four are classified as Vulnerable and eleven as Near Threatened. Clearly, many of the species mentioned above were among the highlights, but other great birds seen on the tour included the incredible Iiwi, a real symbol of Hawaii’s birds. It wasn’t just the endemics though, and other great birds included superb Bristle-thighed Curlews, wonderful Laysan and Black-footed Albatrosses, and the now successful Nene (or Hawaiian Goose). So it wasn’t all bad: there were still plenty of great birds to see, and on top of that, Hawaii’s scenery was also spectacular. The breathtaking volcanic landscapes on Big Island; the awesome caldera of Haleakala, decorated with Silver Swords on Maui; Kauai’s spectacular Waimea Canyon and Alakai Wilderness; and the gorgeous windswept beaches with high rolling surf throughout the islands: Hawaii is blessed with some incredible natural wonders!

We began the tour in downtown Honolulu, a surprisingly busy and modern city on what is Hawaii’s most heavily populated island of Oahu. As one would expect, we were up fairly early the following day, and heading away from the hustle and bustle as quickly as we could! Our destination was to be the Keaina Heiau State Park, a small forested (much of which is plantations) area above Honolulu. Our aim was to find a small handful of native species amongst the plethora of introduced vermin. To set the scene, Red Junglefowls ran across the road, Spotted and Zebra Doves pottered along the road, cardinals and bulbuls flitted about, Red-billed Leiothrix and White-rumped Shamas sang vigorously (and were showier than they are in much of their native land); and Warbling (Japanese) Whit-eyes and Common Mynas were common!! All of these and more before a native bird had been spied!! That said, we walked a pleasant trail which enabled us to find the two Oahu land bird endemics: first we easily found the charismatic Oahu Amakihi, which granted us several excellent views. It was such a relief to see a bird that belonged here! It wasn’t easy, but after a while we found a sneaky Oahu Elepaio carrying food and tracked it to its nest. Over the next half an hour or so, we got some great views of the pair attending the nest.

Mission accomplished, we returned to the vehicle and headed on a little tour around the busy North Shore, where packed beaches and surfers caught our gaze. We continued on our way to the famous James Campbell National Wildlife Refuge. Some roadside ponds yielded our first Hawaiian Coots, Hawaiian Stilts (complete with black tail bands), and a variety of more common waders including stunning Pacific Golden Plovers and Wandering Tattlers. We then made our way round to the famous Kahuku Golf Course, and here we gained some brilliant views of a few confiding Bristle-thighed Curlews! Amazing to think that they fly for three and a half days non-stop to get to and from Alaska! A few fabulous Laysan Albatrosses were sat on the turf with them, as others arced over us and sailed over the golf course! Offshore, good numbers of boobies and noddies were passing, including several smart Masked Boobies. We then made our way down to the southeast of the island and spent a little while peering out over the beautifully scenic Manana Island. Here, thousands of Wedge-tailed Shearwaters cavorted over the waves, swarms of Sooty Terns hovered over the island and numerous Red-footed Boobies arced gracefully by. Also, much to our delight, a couple of rare Hawaiian Monk Seals were hauled out on the beach. A decent dinner and well-earned rest followed!

We spent the following morning again exploring the area around the Kahuku Golf Course and the edges of James Campbell National Wildlife Refuge. Here we again admired the Bristle-thighed Curlews and saw more Laysan Albatrosses alongside some recently established Black-footed Albatrosses. Also here was a much closer Hawaiian Monk Seal, this one playing with a discarded diver’s fin! Heading for the airport a White Tern was noted, before we boarded our flight to Kauai.

The second island of our Hawaiian journey was the pretty Kauai, ‘the garden isle’. A washed-out bridge delayed us somewhat, but then after lunch we headed north to the spectacular Kilauea Point. We spent the next hour or so enjoying the throngs of Wedge-tailed Shearwaters and Red-footed Boobies, and we also enjoyed more Red-tailed Tropicbirds as well as some Magnificent Frigatebirds, whilst Laysan Albatrosses drifted by and Nenes entertained at close range. We then moved on to a pleasant beach-side restaurant where, as well as enjoying some fine fish and chips, we gained some great scope views of fabulous Hawaiian Petrels that were making there way close inshore before heading into the mountains after dark to their breeding colonies.

Kauai’s native forest bird survivors of the human-related onslaughts are now more vulnerable to natural disasters. For instance, Hurricance Iniki is thought to have dealt the final blow to several species when it smashed into Kauai in 1992, clearing the forest canopy from exposed ridges there. As on the other islands, seeing most of the surviving endemics requires a visit to lush higher-elevation forests where mosquitoes carrying the lethal avian malaria haven’t yet wiped the birds out. However, with global warming, the mosquitoes appear to have now reached the top on Kauai, and consequently there is no sanctuary.

Consequently, the main ornithological attraction of Kauai is (or at least was?) the Alakai swamp, a wet montane 1000m+ plateau in the centre of the island, which is dissected by tributaries of the awe-inspiring Waimea Canyon. This is a gigantic chasm of Grand Canyon proportions. Much of Kauai’s interior consists of imposing escarpments and plunging waterfalls and it also shares a claim to being the wettest place on earth (equal with Cherrapungee in northeast India) at 11.5m of rain per year and that is a lot of rain! It is difficult to imagine another small island having such impressive features. We paused to admire the canyon several times, and enjoyed hunting Short-eared Owls as we went. The fabulous Waimea Canyon, one of Hawaii’s best-kept secrets is actually one of the geological wonders of the world at 20km long and over 800m deep!!

As the birds have become tougher, the options have become fewer, and after an entertaining 4WD drive, crossing rivers and sliding through mud baths, we arrived at a small parking lot from where we were to walk. It was a long, arduous and at times difficult walk which took us across rivers, along narrow ridges and up and down slopes, and all of this was done, knowing that most of our target species would likely be nigh on impossible to find. But we had to try! Colourful, noisy (and widespread) Apapanes were the most conspicuous bird, and a couple of the endemics were relatively easy, namely the excitable Kauai Elepaio and the little lemon yellow Anianiau, though the latter seemed much scarcer than on my previous visit. The others proved a step too far… Akikiki or Kauai Creeper are now almost all in captivity in an attempt to save them, and if one or two were hanging on, we had no luck. The critically endangered Puaiohi, Kauai’s surviving solitaire was heard, but sadly would not show, and the rare Akekee (researchers had barely seen them in recent months) was nowhere to be found. Even the Kauai Amakihi was conspicuous by its absence, making for a rather subdued walk back. We drove back and made a strategic stop along the coast, and once again trained the scopes on the ocean. We were again in luck, as not only did we see some more Hawaiian Petrels: we also got some good looks at the much-wanted, and rare, Newell’s Shearwater.

The following morning, we returned to the Kokee State Park and did some gentle birding along the road. Here we were able to find the two of the endemics for those that did not attempt the walk, namely Anianiau and Kauai Elepaio. We tried and tried to get good views of the now rare Kauai Amakihi, and although we did see one briefly, we never got decent views, and I fear the future for this bird will not be good unless the small number of remaining individuals have developed resistance to malaria. At this point, the desperately sad state of the archipelago’s avifauna really was driven home to us, as we watched more Warbling White-eyes and Erckel’s Francolins! Heading back, we stopped at a wetland with good numbers of stilts and other waterbirds as well as our first Hawaiian Ducks (though they certainly were not all pure), many Nene, a vagrant Laughing Gull, and a rarer vagrant (American) Black Tern. We then decided to drive to the north of the island (actually quite a long drive), to Hanalei National Wildlife Refuge. Here, amongst the tarot fields, we found some convincing looking Hawaiian Ducks, and the local form of Common Gallinule was conspicuous and nearby we found numerous entertaining flocks of Nenes. An evening seawatch failed to add any species.

A final attempt for the amakihi proved futile the following morning, and we then made our way back to the airport and flew to Maui, where we picked up the vehicle and found a great spot for lunch. We then made our way up to the wonderful Hosmer Grove in glorious afternoon sunshine. Here the flowering Mamane shrubs were full of birds and in no time at all we had located numerous stunning Iiwis, Hawaii Amakihis (Maui form), numerous Apapanes and, small numbers of the rare, warbler-like Maui Alauhio (Maui Creeper). In the glorious afternoon sun it was quite a sight, and quite a relief after the traumas of Kauai!

The following morning we headed back to Hosmer Grove, though surprisingly, although all the same species were again present, they seemed somewhat less obliging than the previous afternoon. We then made our way higher up into the impressive Haleakala National Park. The summit of Haleakala is home to an amazing endemic plant, Silversword, a sunflower relative, which produces an enormous 3m tall flowering spike in its last year of life, after about 25 years. It has been brought back from the brink of extinction in the national park thanks to a new fence, which keeps out hungry goats and there are a good number of these stunning plants at the summit. We also enjoyed stupendous views over the multi-hued caldera to the east as well as a confiding Chukar. It was botanical and scenic bliss!

We made our way back down for lunch, and between lunch and our next flight, some of us explored a couple of wetlands, namely Kanaha Pond State Wildlife Sanctuary and Kealia Pond National Wildlife Refuge. Both areas housed excellent numbers of Hawaiian Coots and Hawaiian Stilts, and other species of interest included a White-faced Ibis, a drake Ring-necked Duck and no fewer than eight stunning adult Franklin’s Gulls in their gorgeous pink-hued plumage. We arrived on Big Island (Hawaii) well after dark and checked into our hotel and grabbed some dinner!

The fourth and final island of our Hawaiian journey was the aptly named Big Island. At 10,000 sq. km (and still growing) it is a larger landmass than all the other islands in the archipelago combined. It is also the youngest and has five volcanoes: Kohala; Mauna Kea (4205m and the highest mountain in the world if measured from its based on the floor of the ocean); Hualalai; Mauna Loa (Mauna Kea is actually a side vent of the Mauna Loa) and Kilauea (the latter three have erupted in historic times and in fact the last one is still going). The Big Island was originally home to five endemic genera, although sadly only one of them is still extant, Loxoides, represented by the Palila. Hawaii as a whole has lost a tremendous variety of endemic bird species. Every island had one to three species of flightless rails, there were two species of forest-dwelling ibises, another eight geese in addition to the Nene, a short-winged Wood Harrier, four Stilt-Owls and there were also at least five species of large raven-sized crows. Although BirdLife International sensibly take their time in classifying birds as extinct, in view of the general lack of rediscoveries they are perhaps rather optimistic in clinging on to the following lost species (date last seen in the wild in brackets): Kamao (1981), Oahu Creeper (1985); Olomao (1988); O’u (1989); Nukupu’u (1996) and the Po’o-uli (2004). Sadly, only six endemics are still extant, though surely any island with six endemics has got to be worth a visit!

Our first full day on the island was our big day to the Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge, and we set off early to meet with our guide, from where we made our way in our 4WD (well…) van to the refuge. Once we arrived and began walking in the reserve it really was like turning the clock back: magnificent native forest, full of native birds! Iiwis, Hawaii Amakihis and Apapanes were all common, the latter flying around in busy flocks, looking almost like crossbills passing over the forest. The smart endemic Hawaii Elepaio, here of the Hilo Coast or Volcano form was quickly found, and as soon as we arrived at some heavily moss and lichen encrusted Koa trees, we located our main prize, the unique (at least in a current context!) Akiapolaau. After a bit of maneuvering, we were all treated to magnificent views of this special bird with its unique, unhinged bill. The lower mandible is literally a short chisel, used for digging out the grubs like a woodpecker, whilst the upper mandible is a long scythe for poking into the holes and extracting prey. We enjoyed the bird for a good while and then carried on our hunt. Next was the Hawaii Creeper which we found easily, and it showed well to all whilst giving its distinct song. A rare, though visually not too impressive species! Next, the rich song of the Omao, or Hawaiian Thrush, soon caught our attention, and it did not take too long before we’d caught site of this somewhat drab endemic, with several showing well, even feeding on berries close by. And it really didn’t take too long to find the rare Hawaii Akepa, a fluorescent male of which gave great views. We could then just relax and enjoy the numerous native birds in their fantastic forest. An Iiwi nest was good to find, and we even staked out a rare Hawaii Akepa nest in a hollow (the only ‘Hawaiian Honeycreeper’ with such nesting habits!). The Kalij Pheasants on the trail and the Warbling White-eyes were a reminder of the issues facing the native birds, and as we travelled back, the numerous Erckel’s Francolins, introduced for hunting, were another reminder of human stupidity! Nevertheless it had been a great day, and the stops on the way home yielded little else, though the pond in town held a drake Lesser Scaup and a Pied-billed Grebe as well as a variety of unsavory introduced species!

Early the following morning we headed across the island to Kona and boarded our vessel for a pelagic adventure. It’s fair to say that it was a fairly quiet trip but it was littered with a few highlights. Wedge-tailed Shearwaters and Bulwer’s Petrels were the commonest species, and we enjoyed some good views of a couple of Leach’s Storm Petrels, and, importantly, some great views of two or three spanking Hawaiian Petrels. A few Sooty Shearwaters, and commoner boobies and terns were also noted whilst cetaceans were also excellent, with Spinner Dolphins, some acrobatic Pantropical Spotted Dolphins and close encounters with some magnificent Sperm Whales! After the pelagic, we continued on the long drive (by Hawaiian standards!) to Manuka State Park where we found the second of the three forms of Hawaiian Elepaio: ‘Kona’ Elepaio (sandwichensis). Having watched the pair, we made the long journey back to the hotel. Big Island was living up to its name.

The following day, we again ascended the impressive Saddle Road, the high pass between the two dominant volcanoes Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa, crossing vast lava flows and passing patches of stunted native Ohia forest. Our destination was Pu’u La’au, the reserve set up to protect the unique Mamane-Naio forest habitat of the Palila. This is the last of the of the Big Island finch-like former ‘Drepanids’. We searched some old haunts, finding Hawaii Elepaio of the palest form, ‘Mauna Kea’ (bryani), but no Palilas. We then drove deeper into the habitat, and after a while, heard the distinctive song of the Palila. We tracked it down to a Mamane tree, but it was well buried, and only gave brief views to most of the group. As the heat increased and activity died down, it became apparent that our chances of further success were slim, so we retraced our steps, somewhat relieved, but unsatisfied. Back at the start of the road, an unusually pale Short-eared Owl, with whitish primaries resembling a Barn Owl, caused some interest! The late afternoon we spent searching for the sometimes-elusive Hawaiian Hawk, eventually tracking down a pair which showed in the scope, though at a fair distance. A brief stop on the way back yielded a Snow Goose which had arrived as a wild bird but now seemed quite tame and was taking an unhealthy interest in the local white Muscovy Ducks!!

With one morning left on Big Island, and some unfinished business, we headed back up the by now familiar Saddle Road for one last effort! We arrived on the lower slopes of Mauna Kea relatively early and went straight to our favoured spot for the Palila. This time, in the early morning sun, the singing Palila was easy to find, and we enjoyed brilliant views of this great bird which instantly became our bird of the trip. More lovely views of the Mauna Kea form of Hawaii Elepaio were appreciated, and, later in the morning, we also managed better views of Hawaiian Hawk! We then managed time for showering, packing, and an excellent lunch, before making our way to the airport. It had been another great Pacific adventure, and one that had seen us get all but a few of the extant and gettable Hawaii endemics, and the odd future split too! If only we could have turned back the clock!! The pattern of one or two fewer each trip looks set to continue, and of the species recorded this year, Kauai Amakihi, Anianiau and Palila all look to be in imminent danger.






4th Hawaiian Akepa

5th Iiwi

6th Bristle-thighed Curlew







Species marked with the diamond symbol (◊) are either endemic to the country or local region or considered ‘special’ birds for some other reason (e.g., it is only seen on one or two Birdquest tours; it is difficult to see across all or most of its range; the local form is endemic or restricted-range and may in future be treated as a full species).

The species names and taxonomy used in the bird list follows Gill, F., Donsker, D., & Rasmussen, P.(Eds). 2024. IOC World Bird List (v14.1) (this was the current version when the checklist for the tour report was created).

Where the subspecies seen is/are known, these are often given in parentheses at the end of the species comment.



Nene ◊ (Hawaiian Goose) Branta sandvicensis Plenty seen well, the first around Kilauea Point on Kauai.

Snow Goose (Lesser S G) Anser [caerulescens] caerulescens A white morph at Waikea Pond, Big Island. Apparently arrived as a wild bird, and now seemingly paired with a white Muscovy Duck!

Muscovy Duck (introduced) Cairina moschata Grim individuals at Waikea Pond, Big Island.

Northern Shoveler Spatula clypeata A pair seen at the James Campbell NWR, Oahu.

Hawaiian Duck ◊ (Koloa) Anas wyvilliana Best individuals were seen on Kauai, especially at Hanalei NWR.

Mallard (introduced) Anas platyrhynchos Manky introduced birds [nominate].

Ring-necked Duck Aythya collaris A drake seen at Kealia Pond, Maui.

Lesser Scaup Aythya affinis A drake seen at Waikea Pond, Big Island.

California Quail (introduced) Callipepla californica A pair on the way down from the Discovery Trail, Muana Kea.

Wild Turkey (introduced) Meleagris gallopavo Three on Big Island! [intermedia].

Common Pheasant (introduced) Phasianus colchicus

Kalij Pheasant (introduced) Lophura leucomelanos Plenty on Big Island [leucomelanos].

Indian Peafowl (introduced) Pavo cristatus Roadside birds on Big Island!

Red Junglefowl (introduced) Gallus gallus Chickens were abundant!

Grey Francolin (introduced) Ortygornis pondicerianus A pair on Kahuku GC, Oahu.

Black Francolin (introduced) Francolinus francolinus A male on the way up to the Discovery Trail, Mauna Kea.

Chukar Partridge (introduced) Alectoris chukar Just one at Haleakala, Maui.

Erckel’s Spurfowl (introduced) Pternistis erckelii Fairly common – smart and almost snowcock-like!!

Rock Dove (introduced) Columba livia

Spotted Dove (introduced) Spilopelia chinensis

Zebra Dove (introduced) Geopelia striata

Mourning Dove (introduced) Zenaida macroura Seen on Maui and Big Island.

Common Gallinule Gallinula galeata A few of the endemic subspecies noted, the first at the James Campbell NWR [sandvicensis].

Hawaiian Coot ◊ Fulica alai Quite a few seen well, the first at the James Campbell NWR.

Pied-billed Grebe Podilymbus podiceps An adult in breeding plumage seen at Waikea Pond, Big Island [nominate].

Black-necked Stilt ◊ (Hawaiian S) Himantopus [mexicanus] knudseni Fairly common, especially on Maui. First seen at the James Campbell NWR.

Pacific Golden Plover Pluvialis fulva Common and widespread.

Bristle-thighed Curlew ◊ Numenius tahitiensis Great views at the James Campbell NWR, where at least 15 were noted.

Wandering Tattler Tringa incana Several seen well, many in breeding plumage.

Ruddy Turnstone Arenaria interpres First seen at the James Campbell NWR [nominate].

Sanderling Calidris alba First seen at the James Campbell NWR.

White Tern (Common Fairy T) Gygis alba Just a couple seen in flight around Waikiki [candida].

Brown Noddy Anous stolidus Plenty seen off the Oahu coast [pileatus].

Sooty Tern Onychoprion fuscatus Plenty seen of the Oahu coast, particularly from the Manana Island overlook [oahuensis].

Black Tern (American B T) Chlidonias [niger] surinamensis A surprise find, a non-breeding bird at Kawaiele SWS, Kauai.

Laughing Gull Leucophaeus atricilla One seen well at Kawaiele SWS, Kauai [megalopterus].

Franklin’s Gull Leucophaeus pipixcan Eight stunning breeding-plumaged adults at Kealia Pond, Maui.

Red-tailed Tropicbird Phaethon rubricauda A few, the first from the Manana Island overlook [melanorhynchos].

White-tailed Tropicbird Phaethon lepturus A few seen including couple off the Oahu and Kauaii coasts [dorotheae].

Laysan Albatross ◊ Phoebastria immutabilis Plenty seen well, the first at the James Campbell NWR. Great birds!

Black-footed Albatross ◊ Phoebastria nigripes At least two seen at a colony that was being established at the James Campbell NWR. Apparently, part of a ‘translocation’ scheme.

Leach’s Storm Petrel Hydrobates leucorhous Two seen well on the pelagic off Kona [nominate].

Hawaiian Petrel ◊ Pterodroma sandwichensis Decent scope views of 10+ (others more distantly) off Wainila Bay. Also seen off Port Allen Airport, and great views of a few on the pelagic off Kona.

Wedge-tailed Shearwater Ardenna pacifica Very common at times. Incredible numbers seen from the Manana Island overlook.

Sooty Shearwater Ardenna grisea A couple off the Oahu coast and a handful on the pelagic off Kona.

Newell’s Shearwater ◊ Puffinus newelli A few seen well while seawatching off Port Allen Airfield, Kauai.

Bulwer’s Petrel Bulweria bulwerii 100+ seen well on the pelagic off Kona.

Great Frigatebird Fregata minor A few seen well, especially at Kilauea Point, Kauai [palmerstoni].

Red-footed Booby Sula sula Plenty, especially tat Kilauea Point, Kauai [rubripes].

Brown Booby Sula leucogaster Small numbers off the coasts [plotus].

Masked Booby Sula dactylatra Great views of a few off James Campbell NWR and from the Manana Island Lookout.

White-faced Ibis Plegadis chihi One seen at Kanaha Ponds, Maui.

Black-crowned Night Heron Nycticorax nycticorax Plenty seen, the first in Waikiki!

Snowy Egret Egretta thula Non-leader.

Western Cattle Egret (introduced) Bubulcus ibis Common and widespread.

Hawaiian Hawk ◊ Buteo solitarius Only seen north of Hilo where we eventually saw a couple of pairs well.

Short-eared Owl Asio flammeus A few seen well, on the drives in and out of Kokee State Park, Kauai, and around Hosmer Grove, Maui. One with very white flight feathers (recalling a Barn Owl) was seen at the Mauna Kea turn off [sandwichensis].

Rose-ringed Parakeet (introduced) Psittacula krameri

Kauai Elepaio ◊ Chasiempis sclateri Several seen well along the Mohihi Trail in the Alakai, and others seen well between the lookouts on Kokee Road, in Kokee State Park. The only Kauai endemic doing well!!??

Oahu Elepaio ◊ Chasiempis ibidis Excellent views of a pair at the nest along the ‘Aiea Loop Trail in Keaina Heiau State Park.

Hawaii Elepaio (Kona Coast E) ◊ Chasiempis [sandwichensis] sandwichensis Good views of a pair at Manuka State Park in southwest Big Island.

Hawaii Elepaio (Hilo Coast E) ◊ Chasiempis [sandwichensis] ridgwayi A few seen well at the Hakalau Forest NWR.

Hawaii Elepaio (Mauna Kea E) ◊ Chasiempis [sandwichensis] bryani Excellent views along the Discovery Trail on Mauna Kea.

Eurasian Skylark (introduced) Alauda arvensis

Red-whiskered Bulbul (introduced) Pycnonotus jocosus

Red-vented Bulbul (introduced) Pycnonotus cafer

Japanese Bush Warbler (introduced) Horornis diphone Several seen well [cantans].

Warbling White-eye (introduced) Zosterops japonicus An extremely common introduction [japonicus group].

Red-billed Leiothrix (introduced) Leiothrix lutea First seen along the ‘Aiea Loop Trail in Keaina Heiau State Park.

Chinese Hwamei (introduced) Garrulax canorus Common in the Kokee SP, Maui.

Northern Mockingbird (introduced) Mimus polyglottos

Common Myna (introduced) Acridotheres tristis

Puaiohi ◊ (Small Kauai Thrush) Myadestes palmeri Heard only with one heard briefly at the Alakai Swamp.

Omao ◊ (Hawaiian Thrush) Myadestes obscurus Excellent views of several at the Hakalau Forest NWR.

White-rumped Shama (introduced) Copsychus malabaricus Several seen well

House Sparrow (introduced) Passer domesticus [nominate].

Java Sparrow (introduced) Padda oryzivora

Scaly-breasted Munia (introduced) Lonchura punctulata

Chestnut Munia (introduced) Lonchura atricapilla

Common Waxbill (introduced) Estrilda astrild

Red Avadavat (introduced) Amandava amandava Introduced flocks seen on Big Island.

Maui Alauahio ◊ (M Creeper) Paroreomyza montana Two or three seen very well at Hosmer Grove, Maui [newtoni].

Palila ◊ Loxioides bailleui Brilliant views of a couple of males at Mauna Kea. Took two attempts and some effort to see them well.

Iiwi ◊ Drepanis coccinea Brilliant views of many at Hosmer Grove, Maui, and small numbers seen well on Big Island, including a pair nestbuilding at the Hakalau Forest NWR.

Apapane ◊ Himatione sanguinea The most common and widespread of the ‘Hawaiian Creepers’ with many seen well on Kauai, Maui, and Big Island. Seemingly able to survive avian malaria!

Akiapolaau ◊ Hemignathus wilsoni Great views of a feeding male at the Hakalau Forest NWR.

Anianiau ◊ (Lesser A) Magumma parva A pair seen well along the Mohihi Trail in the Alakai, and another pair between the lookouts on Kokee Road, in Kokee State Park. This species is becoming much scarcer and is likely in serious trouble now!

Hawaii Creeper ◊ Loxops mana Great views of several at the Hakalau Forest NWR.

Hawaii Akepa ◊ Loxops coccineus Great views of three or four at the Hakalau Forest NWR, including a couple of fine males.

Hawaii Amakihi ◊ Chlorodrepanis virens Common on Maui where easy to see at Hosmer Grove [wilsoni]. Also common on Big Island where first seen at the Hakalau Forest NWR [nominate].

Oahu Amakihi ◊ Chlorodrepanis flava Excellent views of several along the ‘Aiea Loop Trail in Keaina Heiau State Park.

Kauai Amakihi ◊ Chlorodrepanis stejnegeri Only seen in flight between the lookouts on Kokee Road, in Kokee Stae Park. This species is likely in serious trouble now!

House Finch (introduced) Haemorhous mexicanus Plenty seen.

Yellow-fronted Canary (introduced) Crithagra mozambica Plenty seen.

Western Meadowlark (introduced) Sturnella neglecta A few seen on Kauai.

Northern Cardinal (introduced) Cardinalis cardinalis A common and widespread introduction.

Saffron Finch (introduced) Sicalis flaveola

Red-crested Cardinal (introduced) Paroaria coronata A common and widespread introduction.

Yellow-billed Cardinal (introduced) Paroaria capitata Only seen on Big Island.



Domestic Cat (introduced) Felis catus

Small Indian Mongoose (introduced) Urva auropunctata

Hawaiian Monk Seal Neomonachus schauinslandi Particularly interesting was the individual at the James Campbell NWR which was playing with and chewing a discarded diver’s fin!

Eurasian Wild Pig (introduced) Sus scrofa

Mouflon (introduced) Ovis gmeli

Sperm Whale (Great S W) Physeter macrocephalus Amazing views on the pelagic off Kona.

Pantropical Spotted Dolphin Stenella attenuata Amazing views on the pelagic off Kona.

Spinner Dolphin Stenella longirostris A few seen on the pelagic off Kona.

Hoary Bat Lasiurus cinereus Leader only, one seen flying around at dusk on Kauai. Hawaii’s only native bat.