20 February - 15 March 2024

by Trevor Ellery

Our Colombian adventure began high in the Paramos, which straddle the eastern Andes above Bogota. Our first morning was spent in the breathtaking Sumapaz National Park, where we searched for a mouthwatering list of endemics and near endemics, among the Espeletia and bamboo dominated uplands. Perhaps the main target here is the near-endemic Green-bearded Helmetcrest. It proved tough at first but a little perseverance led to outstanding views of several individuals, including some adult males, flashing their full green beards. The recently split Boyacá Antpitta proved fairly common and very obliging and several showed well, as they ran around on the short turf. The wetlands held Andean Teal (of the Merida form), Andean Duck and American Coot (of the endemic colombianus subspecies). We also located several hulking Noble Snipes and enjoyed good scope views of a single that sat out in the marsh. Perhaps our second principal target was the endemic Apolinar’s Wren and these were fairly common in the park. Interestingly the subspecies involved (hernandezi) is found in bamboo patches mixed in the paramo, a habitat that is strikingly different to the wetland reedbeds preferred by the apolinari subspecies of the Bogota Plateau (which is now sadly all but extinct around Bogota itself). The lack of forest on this true paramo means mixed flocks are rather few but those we did find held quality. We located some very obliging, near endemic Rufous-browed Conebills and also enjoyed Andean Tit-Spinetail, Tawny-rumped Tyrannulet and multiple Brown-backed Chat-Tyrants. A couple of Black-chested Buzzard Eagles were also noted cruising overhead. A final stop involved a brush with the always friendly and obliging Colombian military. Red-rumped Bush-Tyrant, while not endemic, is rather rare and localised across its Andean range and any opportunity to encounter this magnificent species should be relished. It had been reliable around a remote Finca, which had been taken over by the army as a base for a routine checkpoint. After politely asking permission we were allowed to scan for our quarry and soon enjoyed fine views of this impressive Flycatcher. Several Chestnut-winged Cinclodes and Plumbeous Sierra Finches were grubbing around at our feet and we enjoyed a few jokes and sweets with the slightly bemused soldiers. A surprise was a group of around forty Cliff Swallows that migrated north overhead. By late morning it was time to wend our way back to Bogota but we made a few stops at remnant forest patches as we dropped off the Paramo. The key target was the endemic Silvery-throated Spinetail and we managed to coax a vocal individual out into view. We also encountered a mixed flock which included Golden-fronted Whitestart (of the white spectacled ornatus form), Pearled Treerunner, White-throated Tyrannulet, Pale-naped Brushfinch, both Black-crested and Russet-crowned Warblers and Superciliaried Hemispingus. A transfer through the bustling southern suburbs of Bogota produced abundant Feral Pigeons and Eared Doves, while other roadside birds included Bare-faced Ibis, Southern Lapwing, Western Cattle Egret, Black Vulture, Tropical Kingbird, Shiny Cowbird and a couple of White-tailed Kites. Our afternoon was more relaxed, as we staked out a favoured set of hummingbird feeders. The feeders were busy with a small selection of commoner species including Lesser Violetear, Tourmaline Sunangel, Glowing Puffleg, Buff-tailed Coronet, White-bellied Woodstar and our first Collard Inca, while a single female Gorgeted Woodstar was a bonus. We had to wait though for the chief prize but after some time a dazzling male Golden-bellied Starfrontlet joined the frenzy. We then had just a little time for some flock birding, adding Capped Conebill and Grass-green and Blue-and-black Tanagers, before it was time to make the trek back across Bogota, after what had been a long but very enjoyable first day.

Our second morning involved a very early departure (a common theme throughout the tour) and by dawn we were eating a packed breakfast in some wonderful temperate forest on the edge of Chingaza Nation Park. While we were still high in the eastern Andes, we had chosen to bird at a slightly lower elevation, just below the Paramo edge and in some taller temperate forest. Our main target was the endemic Flame-winged Parakeet and while it was heard early in the morning, we were unable to locate any more flocks. More than ample recompense was found in an obliging, near-endemic, Muisca Antpitta, which was visiting a worm feeder. We were also able to enjoy a roosting Andean Potoo, again a species that whilst not endemic, has a very localised distribution in the Andes and which was a new bird for almost everybody in the group. Our continual Parakeet searching also allowed us to tease out another important species, the near-endemic Pale-bellied Tapaculo. Commoner Andean species included Black-billed Mountain Toucan, White-banded Tyrannulet, a female Purple-backed Thornbill, a Lounguemare’s Sunangel, Golden-headed Quetzal, Masked Trogon and our first Hooded and Scarlet-bellied Mountain Tanagers. We also enjoyed a brief male of the near endemic Coppery-bellied Puffleg. Finally a couple of Whistling Herons were seen in the pastures, a species which has started to follow deforestation out of the eastern lowlands and up into the Andes. In the early afternoon it was time start working our way back to Bogota but en route we detoured to some wetlands, where a furtive Bogota Rail eventually showed well. We also took a look at the endemic and isolated local race of Spot-flanked Gallinule (perhaps a split in waiting), while a pair of Torrent Tyrannulets were a surprise. The very late afternoon was spent at some hummingbird feeders where new species came thick and fast. The dazzling Blue-throated Starfrontlet was the main prize but we also enjoyed our only Green-tailed and Black-tailed Trainbearer’s and our first Sword-billed Hummingbird and Great Sapphirewing.

Our third day saw us leave the Bogota Plateau and begin our descent down the western flank of the eastern Andes and on into the Magdalena Valley. We made a first stop though in the subtropical zone, where we enjoyed good looks at a pair of the endemic Turquoise Dacnis ranging in a favoured tree. This was the first day where the birding started to get really busy and we found the patchy forest to be alive with mixed flocks and boreal migrants. Highlights were many but included our first Red-headed Barbets, White-throated Toucanets, skulking Striped-breasted Spinetails and the localised Moustached Brusfinch and Moustached Puffbird. More widespread species were represented by Andean Guan, a female White-booted Racket-tail, a single Hook-billed Kite, Olivaceous Piculet, Acorn and Smoky-brown Woodpeckers, a couple of Montane Foliage-gleaners and multiple Ash-browed Spinetails. Flycatchers included Slaty-capped Flycatcher, Scale-crested Pygmy Tyrant and Yellow-Olive Flatbill. We also saw our first Rufous-naped Greenlets, Brown-capped Vireos, a Speckle-breasted Wren (of the colombianus subspecies – a potential split), a couple of White-naped Brushfinches and some sparkling Yellow-backed Orioles. Migrant warblers included Black-and-white, Tennessee, Canada and a stunning male Cerulean, along with plentiful Blackburnians, many of which were coming into summer plumage. A veritable bonanza of Tanagers included Crimson-backed, Fawn-breasted, Golden-naped, Black-capped, Blue-necked, Scrub, Metallic-green, Bay-headed, Flame-faced and Golden, it was a bit overwhelming at times to be honest! After an early lunch we dropped down into the heat of the valley and then made a couple of birding stops in some dry forest habitat. The first failed to produce the hoped for Apical Flycatcher but we did pick up an interesting mix of other species including Fulvous-crowned Scrub Tyrant, Pearly-vented Tody Tyrant, Groove-billed Ani and Spectacled Parrotlet. The understorey held some very obliging White-fringed Antwrens, several pairs of Barred Antshrike and a pair of skulking White-bellied Antbirds. Flycatchers included both Forest and Greenish Elaenias and we also logged Scrub Greenlet, Buff-breasted Wren, our first Tropical Gnatcatchers, a small group of Grey Pileated Finches and both Black-faced Grassquit and Grey Seedeater. Our second stop was also productive with the main target, the endemic Velvet-fronted Euphonia, being found quickly. It was then time to begin climbing out of the valley and into the foothills but this time in the central Andes. Traffic problems meant a late arrival at our Hotel but it was nice to be out of the heat of the valley and once again in the cooler climes of the Andes.

The following morning it was time to wrap up warm and buckle up, as we made a lengthy jeep drive high into the Andes, to visit the isolated Giles Fuertesi reserve. Once again we were birding in temperate forest and by the end of the day we were hoping to have seen two of the world’s rarest parrots. Our first target was the critically endangered Fuertes’s or Indigo-winged Parrot and following the advice of our local guide, we positioned ourselves at a secluded lookout in the hope of intercepting the birds as they fanned out to feed in the bromeliad laden forest. This plan worked perfectly and not only did we enjoy fantastic flight views but several individuals perched close by for a short period. While we were waiting, we enjoyed a few species at the hummingbird feeders including, single Black-thighed Puffleg and Shining Sunbeam and a couple of Buff-winged Starfrontlets. A Plain-breasted Hawk flew over and we located a rufous morph Andean Pygmy Owl, that remained ensconced high in the canopy but which allowed reasonable scope views. Other parrots seen in the area included a few fly through Speckle-faced Parrots and quite abundant Scaly-naped Amazons. With our first target in the bag and with the second best looked for in the late afternoon, it was time to enjoy some quality Andean birding. We gradually retraced our steps down the mountain and made frequent stops for species such as Black-collared Jay, Masked Trogon, Sickle-winged Guan, Montane Woodcreeper, Streaked Tuftedcheek, a couple of White-browed Spinetails and a skulking Rufous Spinetail. Arguably (endemic Parrots aside) one of the highlights, not just of the day but of the whole tour, was managing to locate two of the highly localised Masked Saltator. This species is generally very scarce and local through its range and can be seasonal and erratic, even at known sites. We enjoyed great views of two separate and rather obliging individuals. We also had brief looks at a couple of Chestnut-naped Antpittas and a single Bicoloured Antpitta ran across the road. A Rufous-headed Pygmy Tyrant proved rather skulking and we also saw both Streak-throated and Smoky Bush Tyrants, an obliging Rufous-breasted Chat Tyrant and a couple of Pale-edged Flycatchers. Our first Red-crested Cotinga was much appreciated and we enjoyed good looks at both Grass and Mountain Wrens. A group of Andean Siskins flew through and Slaty Brushfinch and Plain-coloured Seedeater scrubbed about at ground level. Mixed flocks held Golden-fronted Redstart (of the golden-fronted form, a potential split) and Blue-backed Conebills, while new Tanagers included Blue-capped and Lacrimose Mountain and a single Carunculated Caracara passed down the valley. By late afternoon we had descended to an area that was dominated by remnant wax palms and that was filled with raucous Golden-plumed Parakeets and Bronze-winged Parrots. These kept us entertained and it wasn’t too long before some distinctive calls heralded the arrival of squadrons of the endemic Yellow-eared Parrot. This highly threatened Parrot seems to be enjoying something of resurgence and we were to enjoy superlative views, as these spectacular birds clambered around on the palm trunks that surrounded us. With the evening drawing in and still quite some distance to our Hotel, it was time to begin out descent, after what had really been a day showcasing some of the best birding possible in the Andes. We did make one more final stop though, for our first obliging Andean Motmots.

Our following morning was far more relaxed as we spent most of it in a rather special garden, which hosts some of the key central Andean endemics. Before we retired to the garden for breakfast and coffee, we first had a little birding along the road, where we soon located the endemic Yellow-headed Brushfinch. It was then time for a bit more waiting and first a rather timid but eventually obliging Tolima Dove visited the seed feeder. Following this a bit more patience led to fine views of a Tolima Blssomcrown attending the flowers. The waiting around was neither onerous nor boring, as the garden was packed with busy hummingbird and fruit feeders. New hummingbirds for the trip included Green Hermit, Fawn-breasted Brilliant, White-vented Plumleteer and the endemic Indigo-capped Hummingbird. A couple of Colombian Chachalacas represented our fifth endemic of the morning and our forth seen in that one garden alone! We also added our first, Inca Jays and Rusty Flowerpiercer s while mammals were represented by Central American Agouti and Red-tailed Squirrel. By late morning it was time to cross the central Andes and descend into the Cauca valley, where we were now to spend some time birding on the western slope of the central Andes. We wended our way to the upper subtropical forest of Otun Quimbaya and spent a pleasant afternoon adding several obliging and endemic Cauca Guans, a perched White-throated Daggerbill, a male Collared Trogon, a couple of Variegated Bristle Tyrants and a group of Colombian Red Howler Monkeys. We also located multiple Red-ruffed Fruitcrows and we remained in the verdant forest until dusk, which allowed us to connect with a couple of Rufous-bellied Nighthawks, that few low over the canopy. A spot of Owling produced a rather brief Rufescent Screech Owl.

The following early morning was spent trying for Hooded Antpitta and while we heard a couple of individuals, this species is no longer very responsive at this site. We then birded slowly down the road, encountering a selection of mixed flocks and adding species including, Tawny-bellied Hermit, Bronzy Inca, Golden-olive Woodpecker, Black-banded Woodcreeper, Lineated Foliage-gleaner, Spotted Barbtail, Streak-capped Treehunter, Slaty Antwren and Red-faced Spinetail. A ridiculously tame Wattled Guan was a trip highlight, while overhead flocks included Plumbeous-crowned Tyrannulet, Marble-faced Bristle Tyrant and Rufous-breasted Flycatcher. The understorey was busy with Three-striped Warblers and Chestnut-capped Brushfinches, while a couple of endemic Crested Ant Tanagers were much appreciated. In the late afternoon a short stop produced a pair of Torrent Ducks and a couple of White-capped Dippers, feeding amongst the rushing water of the fast flowing Otun river. We then made a late afternoon transfer to our base for the next three nights, a pleasant country Hotel on the outskirts of Manizales.

A pre-dawn start the following morning allowed us to find a couple of White-throated Screech Owls and an obliging male Lyre-tailed Nightjar, that displayed just over our heads and which was rated as one of the top moments of the trip by several of the group members. Once we had climbed to the temperate forests of the Rio Blanco Reserve it was Antpitta time. Our local Antpitta whisperer led us to various feeding station, where me managed to enjoy Chestnut-crowned, Slaty-crowned and the endemic Brown-banded Antpittas. Other species visiting the feeders included obliging Green-and-black Fruiteaters and Grey-browed Brushfinch. We also saw a roosting Common Potoo (at rather a high elevation for this species), Flammulated Treehunter, Speckled Hummingbird and Long-tailed Sylph and a couple of Swallow-tailed Kites that migrated north overhead. A Blackish Tapaculo showed well and we also added White-tailed Tyrannulet, Flavescent Flycatcher, both Barred and White-winged Becards, Sepia-brown Wren, Grey-hooded Bush Tanager and Blue-winged Mountain Tanager. Late afternoon birding produced Yellow-vented Woodpecker and some lovely Red-headed Tanagers, while mammals seen during the day included a Western Mountain Coati and numerous Western Dwarf Squirrels.

The theme of high Andean birding was to continue the next day as we climbed to the highest elevation of the trip, at the entrance to Los Nevados National park. Before this though we had an appointment with another endemic parrot. Our pre-dawn arrival at a known stakeout, allowed us to enjoy a male Band-winged Nightjar, before a small group of garrulous Rufous-fronted Parakeets, emerged from the holes in which they had spent a near freezing, high altitude night. They were rather obliging, perching on the cliffs and small bushes, constantly chattering amongst themselves and allowing plentiful views in the scope. Then, as if responding to an unknown signal, they lifted off and headed out across the Paramo, just as the sun really started to break above the mountains. A short drive and then hike further up the mountain, allowed us fantastic views of our second Helmetcrest, the purple bearded Buffy Helmetcrest. This species is confined to the central Andes of Colombia and we saw multiple individuals including several obliging males. A couple of almost tame Tawny Antpittas ran around at our feet and we also found Brown-bellied Swallow, Viridian Metaltail, Stout-billed Cinclodes, an obliging Many-striped Canastero and a showy White-chinned Thistletail. In the late morning we descended off the Paramo and a short stop by some elfin forest allowed us to find the iconic Ocellated Tapaculo. We even managed to get this vocal individual in the scope, though it remained within deep cover. We then took lunch at a Hotel that was situated by some thermal springs. We of course included some time at the hummingbird feeders in the Hotel grounds, where we managed to Golden-breasted Puffleg, Mountain Velvetbreast and a brief but very obliging Rainbow-bearded Thornbill. The fruit feeders also produced our first Pale-naped Brushfinch and allowed good photographic opportunities of the visiting Scarlet-bellied and Hooded Mountain Tanagers. The late afternoon was spent walking down the road in the scrubby Paramo, with the main highlights being more Rainbow-bearded Thornbills and a quite obliging Paramo Tapaculo. It was at dinner that night that we received the cataclysmic news that our planned visit to Hacienda del Bosque the following day would not be possible. This was due to our hosts making a mix up with the dates and double booking various groups. Despite much negotiation, it was clear that they would not be able to accommodate us and it was time to think and think quick. Missing Hacienda del Bosque and its special birds really would have been a huge loss but the following day we were also due to arrive and spend the night in Montezuma, in the remote western Andes. It was decided that we would continue as planned to Montezuma but that rather than transfer direct from Montezuma to Jardin, we would instead return to Manizales, for a morning at Hacienda del Bosque later in the trip and then transfer to Jardin that same day, effectively arriving in Jardin a day late. It wasn’t a perfect solution, it might cost us a few Andean birds in Jardin and it would mean we would have to compress parts of the tour but it was the only solution. In the meantime we had a cancelled morning to fill, so in replacement of once again climbing into the high Andes, we instead descended into the heat of the Cauca Valley. We spent the early morning birding some remnant dry forest and sugar cane plantations, virtually on the banks of the Cauca rivers. We quickly found an obliging and vocal Dwarf cuckoo and racked up a selection of commoner lowland species including Striped Cuckoo, Spot-breasted Woodpecker, Blue-headed and Yellow-crowned Parrots, Scarlet-fronted Parakeet, Streak-headed Woodcreeper, Pale-breasted Spinetail , Yellow Oriole and a couple of Bar-crested Antshrikes. We then gradually began to climb out of the valley and into our third mountain range of the tour, the western Andes. As we climbed we left the orange groves and sugar cane plantations of the lowlands behind and quickly ascended to the cooler, coffee dominated, steep slopes of the subtropical zone. Here some judicious stops added the endemic Greyish Piculet and commoner species including Mourning and Golden-crowned Warblers and Guira Tanager. We followed this with a brief visit to a new Lodge, where we kept the endemic theme going with Parker’s Antbird and the recently described Tatama Tapaculo both showing well. We also picked up our first Greenish Puffleg at the feeders. As Montezuma Lodge was full that night we stayed in the pleasant town of Pueblo Rico and dined in the Bangsia restaurant, named after one of the endemic tanagers we were to target the next day!

The following morning it was another jeep ride, but this time we climbed high into the heavily forested and untouched Tatama National Park. Our bumpy ascent ended at a remote army base and while the soldiers mostly still seemed to be asleep, we enjoyed a packed breakfast and an obliging endemic Chestnut-bellied Flowerpiercer. This was followed by a pair of extremely obliging Tanager Finches, which seemed happy to dine on our left over scraps and which provided superlative views. Montezuma is where the western Andes meet the pacific lowlands of the Choco and it is often a humid and rainy area. It was foggy from dawn and we were to spend much of the day birding in and out of the mist. Montezuma also has one of the highest levels of avian diversity of any site in Colombia and were to spend the majority of the day descending the traffic free jeep trail and amassing an impressive list of west slope specialities. The feeders here produced a new set of Hummingbirds and were buzzing with Velvet-purple Coronets, Violet-tailed Sylphs, Brown Inca and Empress Brilliant. Having descended a short distance from the ridge, we began to log more endemics with obliging Munchique Wood Wrens and iconic Gold-ringed Tanager. We then racked up a steady procession of mouth-watering species including Olivaceous Piha, Indigo Flowerpiercer, Crested Quetzal, Buff-fronted Foliage-gleaner and Fulvous-dotted Treerunner. A couple of Yellow-breasted Antpittas were both seen briefly and a real surprise was a very skulking Hooded Antpitta, which was glimpsed by some. A Nariño Tapaculo was typically furtive and we also logged Rufous-browed Tyrannulet, Black-throated Tody-Tyrant, Handsome Flycatcher, Fulvous-breasted Flatbill and several stunning Orange-breasted Fruiteaters. Other species seen included Black-billed Peppershrike, a skulking Chestnut-breasted Wren, a couple of Black Solitaires and a dazzling male Chestnut-breasted Chlorophonia. Mixed flocks held a few Dusky Chlorospingus, while Tanagers were represented by Purplish-mantled, Black-chinned Mountain, Glistening-green, Multicoloured, Rufous-throated, Saffron-crowned and the endemic Black-and-gold. The lower slopes held a few surprises, with both Russet Antshrike and Slaty-capped Shrike-Vireo, having never been seen on the tour before. By late afternoon it was time for a rest and a break from the mist and fog, so we descended to the feeders, where we had yet more hummingbirds to enjoy. New species for the trip included Purple-bibbed Whitetip, White-necked Jacobin, Green Thorntail, Rufous-gaped Hillstar and Purple-throated Woodstar. Enjoying the splendid avian jewels was a truly superb way to end another exciting and species rich day.

The following day was to be spent on the same road but at lower elevations and looking for a subtly different suite of species. We steadily worked our way down the lower slopes of the mountain picking up Toucan Barbet, Spotted Woodcreeper, Rufous-rumped Antwren, Pacific Tuftedcheek and an obliging Ochre-breasted Antpitta. We managed a hat trick of Manakins with Golden-winged, Striolated and Club-winged. Other species seen included Beautiful Jay, Sooty-headed Wren, Choco Brusfinch and Choco Warbler, Golden-collared Honeycreeper and a couple of brief White-winged Tanagers. In the late afternoon we again returned to the lodge, where we added Green-crowned Brilliant on the feeders and also found a very obliging Blackish Rail, a Black-cheeked Woodpeckers and a Silver-throated Tanager. In the evening a couple of Crab-eating Foxes were seen in the lodge grounds.

Our third day in the western Andes was to begin with a plunge far down into the pacific lowlands, where we were to bird right along the edge of the mighty and infamous Choco Department. Our key target here was the big and bold Baudo Oropendola, a species with a limited range, which is mainly confined to some of the remotest regions of western Colombia. This species can be rather fickle and erratic and chances of an encounter are much heightened by the proximity of a breeding colony. The news from our local guide was not good, as it seemed the nearest colony was now on a high ridge, many hours hike away but we persevered and managed to enjoy good flight and even some perched views, of a few small groups, as they ranged across the wide valley. Satisfied to have added yet another endemic to our burgeoning list, it was time to undertake some more general birding. We quickly encountered a selection of enticing lowland species including Pacific and Moustached Antwrens and Blue-whiskered and Rufous-winged Tanagers. Overhead swarms of White-collared Swifts were joined by five Lesser Swallow-tailed Swifts, while further forest birding produced White-tailed Trogon, Rufous-tailed Jacamar, Spot-crowned Barbet, a couple of Choco Toucans, both Cinnamon and Red-rumped Woodpeckers, Black-headed Tody-Flycatcher, Fulvous and White-vented Euphonias and lots of Bay-breasted Warblers. As the day gradually warmed the activity levels dropped but we still managed to find Scarlet-thighed Dacnis and Golden-hooded, Plain-coloured and Tawny-crested Tanagers. We also met quite a few of the local Embera indigenous people, with the women proving especially interesting in their colourful clothes and tattooed faces. This remote and rather isolated part of Colombia was certainly very different to anywhere else that we visited on the tour. In the late afternoon we returned to the Montezuma entrance road and some further birding produced Lanceolated Monklet, Yellow-collared Chlorophonia, Green-fronted Lancebill and a quite obliging Choco Tapaculo.

The next day was our unplanned return trip to Manizales. We had a twist in the tail through, as an early morning departure meant that we could visit the new lodge near Apia for a second time. Here we positioned ourselves near a new feeding station and waited and waited and waited. Then, after a little bit of coaxing, a lovely covey of three endemic Chestnut Wood Quails noisily bounded into view. Happy to have added yet another endemic , we continued on to Manizales and made an afternoon visit to Hacienda del Bosque. The feeders hosted a very confiding White-throated Quail-Dove and a handsome Andean Squirrel and we also scoped a distant Grey-breasted Mountain Toucan and added a brief Paramo Seedeater.

It was up early for a return visit the next morning and after locating Tyrannine Woodcreeper and a brief Bar-bellied Woodpecker, it was time for more Antpittas . Firstly we had three Equatorial Antpittas dancing around at our feet and then we followed this, with one of the stars of the tour, Luna a very obliging Crescent-faced Antpitta. The feeding stations also provided opportunities to see a few other species up close including Mountain Wren and Yellow-bellied Chat-Tyrant. By late morning it was time to leave and after once again plunging into the Cauca Valley and following the Cauca river north, we climbed back into the fringes of the western Andes and arrived at the pleasant colonial town of Jardin in the late afternoon. We had one more birding appointment and after a short walk to the edge of town, we arrived at the best Cock-of-the-rock lek in the South America. We did not have to use hides, or arrive at the crack of dawn or be worried about skittish birds. No at Jardin you can simply stand at the edge of the lek and watch the very tame birds displaying, at times within touching distance. There was also no let-up in the endemic onslaught, as a group of Red-bellied Grackles visited the fruits feeders.

The next day was in many ways our impossible day. Theoretically we should have left early and birded the Cauca and Magdalena valleys enroute to Rio Claro. However we had the minor issue of the birding above Jardin, which we had, had to postpone due to the mix up at Hacienda del Bosque. We left before dawn and managed a couple of calling Rufous-banded Owls during our ascent, with one giving reasonable scope views in a distant tree. We then arrived at another remote Finca, where we enjoyed the heartiest breakfast of the tour and added Mountain Cacique and Yellow-bellied Siskin. The main reason for our ascent into the mountains above Jardin was once again Antpittas. This time it was the turn of the brash and bold Chestnut-naped Antpitta, followed by the more furtive but endemic and recently split Chami Antpitta. Once we had enjoyed the Antpitta show, it was time to leave. We made a couple of brief stops, which added little but we had way too much to pack into this compressed day and we needed to get to the Cauca valley to look for more endemics. We arrived in the dry forest of the lower parts of the Cauca valley in the early afternoon and quickly found the endemic Antioquia Wren. The forest was surprisingly productive at this hour and we also picked up Cocoa Woodcreeper and Black-crowned Antshrike, before eventually locating the endemic Apical Flycatcher. We were now way behind schedule and it was a case of crossing the Cauca river and traversing the major city of Medellin, before ascending and then finally descending into the hot and steamy Magdalena valley.

It was a rather tired and bleary-eyed group that emerged for our first morning birding in the Magdalena lowlands but we had birds to see and lots of them. A favourite road was rather quiet to begin with but we gradually added new species including Band-backed Wren, Long-tailed Tyrant, Citron-throated Toucan and Wedge-billed Woodcreeper. Off course endemics were always on the menu and after an early White-mantled Barbet, we located a couple of Beautiful Woodpecker, which proved tricky but eventually allowed good scope views. The birding gradually picked up and we added a third endemic in the form of some skulking Sooty Ant Tanagers. Other new species include Gartered Trogon, Red-billed Scythebill, Southern Bentbill, Black-bellied Wren, White-breasted Wood Wren, Dusky-faced and Yellow-backed Tanagers, Yellow-tufted Dacnis and Slate-coloured Grosbeak. It was then time to head for one of the most anticipated moments of the tour – the hike to the Oilbird cave. Rather than a siesta, we headed out after lunch and plunged down the stream bed to this much hallowed site. Usually one gets wet feet on the descent but such was the strength of the drought that had been gripping Colombia, that the bed was completely dry. On the hike down we kept a look out for targets and managed to find White-whiskered Puffbird, Rufous Motmot, Chestnut-backed Antbird, Velvety Manakin and Blue-black Grosbeak. With increasing levels of disturbance from cavers it is always a concern that the main target may not be present. However, we needn’t have worried, as once inside the cave, multiple Oilbirds showed well, perched on ledge or flying about eerily screeching in the darkness. Once we had, had our fill, it was time to retrace our steps and the hike out was especially productive as we located the often tricky Grey-cheeked Nunlet, along with Barred Puffbird, Once-coloured Becard, White-thighed Swallow and our first Bicoloured Wrens.

The following day we had a little time for a final morning at Rio Claro before the long trek back to Bogota. The most productive use of time was some pre-dawn Owling, which added the impressive Spectacled Owl and the diminutive Choco Screech Owl. We also picked up a showy Fasciated Tiger-Heron and three fly through Chestnut-fronted Macaws. We then set out for the long journey to Bogota. A quick roadside stop near some wetlands failed to produce Northern Screamer but we did add both Pied and Russet-throated Puffbirds and White-headed Marsh Tyrant. The rest of the day was then taken up with travel, as we climbed back into the eastern Andes and caught a flight from Bogota to Santa Marta on the Caribbean coast. Arriving on the coast on a Friday night was not ideal but unavoidable and we were further slowed by road blockages caused by some local protests. We eventually arrived at our Hotel in the bustling Rodadero for a short night in preparation for our first birding away from the Andes.

Despite our late arrival we were out again early as we had an appointment with yet another Colombian endemic. A carefully timed arrival in the dawn half-light led to some great views of numerous Chestnut-winged Chachalcas leaving their roost and feeding in the coastal scrub. Our short birding stop soon turned into a wonderful hour, as we picked up a whole host of other species including Whooping Motmot, Crested Bobwhite, Pale-bellied Hermit, Sapphire-throated Hummingbird, Black-crested Antshrike, Brown-throated Parakeet, Northern Mouse-coloured Tyrannulet, Ochre-lored Flatbill and Olive-grey Saltator. It was then time to skirt north east along the Caribbean coast as we headed out towards the Guajira peninsula. A stop in some gallery forest quickly produced some important targets in the shape of Lance-tailed Manakin and White-necked Puffbird, while bonus birds included White-chinned Sapphire, Trilling Gnatwren, Golden-fronted Greenlet, Blue Dacnis and Orange-crowned Oriole. A further brief stop added Blue-crowned Parakeet and then a visit to a stakeout on the edge of the Guajira, allowed us to locate several Rufous-vented Chachalaca plus a surprise Capped Heron and a fly-through Crane Hawk. In the late afternoon we began searching for the Guajira near-endemics in the arid scrub bordering Los Flamencos National Park. We soon located Orinocan Saltator, Bare-eyed Pigeon, Red-billed Emerald, Green-rumped Parrotlet, White-whiskered Spinetail, Northern Scrub Flycatcher, Slender-billed Inezia and Glaucous Tanager. We then finished the day at the mouth of the Camarones lagoon, which was full of a fine selection of water birds including Wilson’s Plover , both Scarlet and White Ibis and Reddish Egret.

The following dawn it was back out in the Guajira scrub to search for more of the near endemics. We soon located a couple of Vermilion Cardinals, a skulking Tocuyo Sparrow, a pair of Double-striped Thick-knees, a vocal Ferruginous Pygmy Owl and a couple Chestnut Piculets. Further searching resulted in more targets falling with Black-backed Antshrike, Pale-tipped Inezia, Buffy Hummingbird and Trinidad Euphonia all being seen well. Having cleared up on pretty much all the speciality birds of the Guajira, we then made a slight detour to some wetlands. These added few trip ticks including some Colombian rarities, in the form of Ring-necked Duck, American Wigeon and a Belted Kingfisher. It was finally time to transfer back along the coast and begin our ascent into the isolated Sierra Nevada mountains. We first though made a stop in the lower foothills and after quite some wait, some squadrons of Military Macaws flew in to roost, allowing distant but good views. We also added our first Keel-billed Toucan and a low flying Zone-tailed Hawk.

It was up again pre-dawn the next morning for another session of Owling. Not long before dawn we had a couple of Black-and-white Owls calling above our heads and once we had located one in the spotlight, it soon became another ‘bird of the trip’ moment. We then had most of the day wending our way up the Santa Marta mountains from the foothills up into the subtropics and which allowed us to target a multitude of specialities and endemics. The lower slopes held a brief Stripe-throated Hermit, a group of Collared Aracari and a small ant swarm, which attracted Ruddy and Plain-brown Woodcreepers. Other highlights included a couple of Scaled Piculets, Lesser Elaenia, Pale-eyed Pygmy-tyrant, Rufous-breasted and Rufous-and-white Wren, Black-striped and Golden-winged Sparrows, Chestnut-capped Warbler and Grey-headed Tanager. Once we climbed higher the endemic listing began in earnest. We started with a double of Santa Marta Antbird and Santa Marta Foliage-gleaner and quickly followed it with an obliging Santa Marta Tapaculo. A group of White-lored warblers were also seen and Santa Marta Brushfinches were ubiquitous. Non-endemics included Long-billed Hermit, a brief perched Bicoloured Hawk, plentiful Yellow-legged Thrushes and a few Black-headed Tanagers.

The next morning it was again an early morning jeep ride as we climbed high to the San Lorenzo ridge, where we had a morning to find as many of the Santa Marta endemics as possible. We started birding from dawn and quickly located Santa Marta Warbler, Santa Marta Bush Tyrant and Yellow-crowned Whitestart. We then visited a semi-trained Santa Marta Antpitta and were also lucky to have brief views of a Sierra Nevada Antpitta, on the main track. A female White-tailed Starfrontlet was seen at a feeder, while skulkers included both Rusty-headed and Streak-capped Spinetails. The recently split Hermit Wood-Wren was much more obliging, singing and dancing around at our feet. A lunch stop provided a Santa Marta Woodstar at some more feeders and we soon followed this with an obliging Brown-rumped Tapaculo. By this time we had seen pretty much all the endemics possible bar one, Santa Marta Parakeet. Knowing that the Parakeet is becoming harder to find in the mountains and knowing that our best chance was to stay on the ridge, we decided to keep on birding up there and in the mid-afternoon an obliging group of Santa Marta Parakeets were seen well. Our slow return to the lodge was enlivened by a perched Black-and-chestnut Eagle and good looks at a White-tipped Quetzal.

The next day was spent birding at lower elevations where we found Rusty-breasted Antpitta, Grey-throated Leaftosser, Groove-billed Toucanet. Crimson-crested Woodpecker, Strong-billed Woodcreeper, a smart male Golden-breasted Fruiteater and a skulking White-necked Thrush. A late afternoon visit to a recently created trail allowed good views of Slaty-backed Nightingale-Thrush and we stayed out after dark, adding another endemic in the form of a Santa Marta Screech Owl and also finding a rather furtive Mottled Owl.

Our penultimate day was spent descending from the lodge picking up Spectacled Tyrannulet and eventually an elusive Rosy Thrush-tanager. Other species seen included Rufous-breasted Hermit, a soaring Black Hawk-Eagle and both Red-legged and Purple Honeycreepers.

A tired but still enthusiastic group assembled for our final mornings birding. Rather than a relaxed finish to the tour, it was a final high octane blast. We started early in the mangroves near Barranquilla, where we found a singing endemic Sapphire-bellied Hummingbird. We also manged to add Bicoloured Conebill, Bare-throated Tiger-Heron, Red-rumped Woodpecker, Panama flycatcher and Yellow-chinned Spinetail. We then moved on to the marshes, where we quickly located Bronze-brown Cowbird and after some searching, the recently split Turquoise-winged Parrotlet. We also added Stripe-backed Wren, Caribbean Hornero, Large-billed Tern, Black-collared Hawk and a good selection of wetland species, while a final stop by the Magdalena river produced great looks at Northern Screamer. We then had time for a few photos and a shower and change in a nearby Hotel, before final lunch at the airport and the beginning of the long haul home, after what had been a truly epic BirdQuest Classic Colombia tour.



Species marked with the diamond symbol (◊) are either endemic to the country or local region or considered ‘special’ birds for some other reason (e.g., it is only seen on one or two Birdquest tours; it is difficult to see across all or most of its range; the local form is endemic or restricted-range and may in future be treated as a full species).

The species names and taxonomy used in the bird list follows Gill, F., Donsker, D., & Rasmussen, P.(Eds). 2024. IOC World Bird List (v14.1).

Where the subspecies seen is/are known, these are often given in parentheses at the end of the species comment.


Grey Tinamou ◊ Tinamus tao Heard.

Tawny-breasted Tinamou ◊ Nothocercus Julius Heard.

Little Tinamou Crypturellus soui Heard.

Black-bellied Whistling Duck Dendrocygna autumnalis

Torrent Duck Merganetta armata A pair were seen well at Otun Quimbaya.

Blue-winged Teal Spatula discors

American Wigeon Mareca Americana A single female in the Guajira, a scarce visitor to Colombia.

Andean Teal ◊ (Merida Speckled T) Anas [andium] altipetens Seen in the Eastern Andes.

Andean Teal (A Speckled T) Anas [andium] andium Seen in the Central Andes.

Ring-necked Duck Aythya collaris A female in the Guajira, a scarce migrant/vagrant in Colombia.

Andean Duck Oxyura ferruginea

Chestnut-winged Chachalaca ◊ Ortalis garrula Endemic. Seen well near Santa Marta.

Rufous-vented Chachalaca ◊ Ortalis ruficauda

Colombian Chachalaca ◊ Ortalis columbiana Endemic. Seen at several sites during the tour.

Band-tailed Guan ◊ Penelope argyrotis

Andean Guan ◊ Penelope montagnii

Cauca Guan ◊ Penelope perspicax Endemic. Seen well at Otun Quimbaya.

Wattled Guan ◊ Aburria aburri A very confiding individual at Otun was a trip highlight.

Sickle-winged Guan ◊ Chamaepetes goudotii

Crested Bobwhite ◊ Colinus cristatus

Chestnut Wood Quail ◊ Odontophorus hyperythrus Endemic. Three were seen well at Apia Birding Lodge.

Lesser Nighthawk Chordeiles acutipennis

Rufous-bellied Nighthawk ◊ Lurocalis rufiventris

Pauraque Nyctidromus albicollis

Band-winged Nightjar Systellura longirostris

Swallow-tailed Nightjar Uropsalis segmentata Seen on the drive to the Giles-fuertesi Reserve.

Lyre-tailed Nightjar Uropsalis lyra A displaying male at Rio Blanco was a trip highlight.

Oilbird Steatornis caripensis A minimum of ten at the cave at Rio Claro.

Common Potoo Nyctibius griseus Heard at several sites and a roosting bird at Rio Blanco.

Andean Potoo ◊ Nyctibius maculosus A roosting bird at Bioandino was a major trip highlight.

Chestnut-collared Swift Streptoprocne rutila

White-collared Swift Streptoprocne zonaris

Short-tailed Swift Chaetura brachyura

Lesser Swallow-tailed Swift Panyptila cayennensis Fiver were seen in the Choco lowlands.

White-necked Jacobin Florisuga mellivora

Rufous-breasted Hermit (Hairy H) Glaucis hirsutus

Stripe-throated Hermit Phaethornis striigularis

Pale-bellied Hermit Phaethornis anthophilus

Green Hermit Phaethornis guy

Tawny-bellied Hermit ◊ Phaethornis syrmatophorus

Long-billed Hermit (Western Long-tailed H) Phaethornis longirostris

Green-fronted Lancebill ◊ Doryfera ludovicae

White-throated Daggerbill Schistes albogularis

Brown Violetear Colibri delphinae

Lesser Violetear Colibri cyanotus

Sparkling Violetear Colibri coruscans

Black-throated Mango Anthracothorax nigricollis

Longuemare’s Sunangel ◊ Heliangelus clarisse

Tourmaline Sunangel ◊ Heliangelus exortis

Green Thorntail Discosura conversii

Speckled Hummingbird Adelomyia melanogenys

Long-tailed Sylph Aglaiocercus kingii

Violet-tailed Sylph ◊ Aglaiocercus coelestis

Black-tailed Trainbearer Lesbia victoriae

Green-tailed Trainbearer Lesbia nuna Seen on the feeders near Bogota.

Purple-backed Thornbill ◊ Ramphomicron microrhynchum

Buffy Helmetcrest ◊ Oxypogon stuebelii Endemic. Great views at Nevado del Ruiz.

Green-bearded Helmetcrest ◊ Oxypogon guerinii Endemic. Great views at Sumapaz.

Bronze-tailed Thornbill ◊ Chalcostigma heteropogon

Rainbow-bearded Thornbill ◊ Chalcostigma herrani Seen well at Nevado del Ruiz.

Tyrian Metaltail Metallura tyrianthina

Viridian Metaltail Metallura williami

Greenish Puffleg Haplophaedia aureliae

Glowing Puffleg ◊ Eriocnemis vestita

Black-thighed Puffleg ◊ Eriocnemis derbyi Seen well at the Giles-fuertesi Reserve.

Coppery-bellied Puffleg ◊ Eriocnemis cupreoventris The near-endemic was seen well at Bioandino.

Golden-breasted Puffleg ◊ Eriocnemis mosquera

Shining Sunbeam ◊ Aglaeactis cupripennis

Bronzy Inca Coeligena coeligena

Brown Inca ◊ Coeligena wilsoni

Collared Inca Coeligena torquata

White-tailed Starfrontlet ◊ Coeligena phalerata  Endemic. Seen well at the El Dorado Reserve.

Buff-winged Starfrontlet Coeligena lutetiae

Golden-bellied Starfrontlet ◊ Coeligena bonapartei This near-endemic was seen well at Chicaque but we had to wait.

Blue-throated Starfrontlet ◊ Coeligena helianthea This near-endemic was seen well at the Obs de Colibris.

Mountain Velvetbreast Lafresnaya lafresnayi

Sword-billed Hummingbird Ensifera ensifera This iconic species was seen on multiple days in the Andes.

Great Sapphirewing Pterophanes cyanopterus

Buff-tailed Coronet ◊ Boissonneaua flavescens

Velvet-purple Coronet ◊ Boissonneaua jardini

White-booted Racket-tail Ocreatus underwoodii

Rufous-gaped Hillstar ◊ Urochroa bougueri

Purple-bibbed Whitetip ◊ Urosticte benjamini

Fawn-breasted Brilliant ◊ Heliodoxa rubinoides

Green-crowned Brilliant Heliodoxa jacula

Empress Brilliant ◊ Heliodoxa imperatrix

Purple-throated Woodstar ◊ Philodice mitchellii

White-bellied Woodstar ◊ Chaetocercus mulsant

Gorgeted Woodstar ◊ Chaetocercus heliodor Seen at a couple of sites near Bogota.

Santa Marta Woodstar ◊ Chaetocercus astreans Endemic. A couple were seen in the Santa Marta mountains.

Western Emerald ◊ Chlorostilbon melanorhynchus

Red-billed Emerald ◊ Chlorostilbon gibsoni

Coppery Emerald ◊ Chlorostilbon russatus

Santa Marta Blossomcrown ◊ Anthocephala floriceps Endemic. Seen well in the Santa Marta mountains.

Tolima Blossomcrown ◊ Anthocephala berlepschi Endemic. Seen well near Cajamarca.

White-vented Plumeleteer Chalybura buffonii

Crowned Woodnymph ◊ (Violet-crowned W) Thalurania [colombica] colombica

Crowned Woodnymph ◊ (Green-crowned W) Thalurania [colombica] fannyae

Buffy Hummingbird ◊ Leucippus fallax Seen well in the Guajira.

Steely-vented Hummingbird Saucerottia saucerottei

Indigo-capped Hummingbird ◊ Saucerottia cyanifrons Endemic. Seen well near Cajamarca.

Rufous-tailed Hummingbird Amazilia tzacatl

Andean Emerald ◊ Uranomitra franciae

Sapphire-throated Hummingbird ◊ Chrysuronia coeruleogularis

Sapphire-bellied Hummingbird ◊ Chrysuronia lilliae Endemic. A single male showed well at Isla de Salamanca.

White-chinned Sapphire Chlorestes cyanus

Greater Ani Crotophaga major

Smooth-billed Ani Crotophaga ani

Groove-billed Ani Crotophaga sulcirostris

Striped Cuckoo Tapera naevia

Dwarf Cuckoo ◊ Coccycua pumila A vocal individual showed well in the Cauca valley.

Squirrel Cuckoo Piaya cayana

Rock Dove (introduced) Columba livia

Scaled Pigeon Patagioenas speciosa

Bare-eyed Pigeon ◊ Patagioenas corensis Seen well in the Guajira.

Band-tailed Pigeon Patagioenas fasciata

Pale-vented Pigeon Patagioenas cayennensis

Plumbeous Pigeon Patagioenas plúmbea Heard.

Ruddy Pigeon Patagioenas subvinacea

Scaled Dove Columbina squammata

Common Ground Dove Columbina passerina

Ruddy Ground Dove Columbina talpacoti

Blue Ground Dove Claravis pretiosa

White-tipped Dove Leptotila verreauxi

Tolima Dove ◊ Leptotila conoveri Endemic. Seen well at a seed feeder near Cajamarca.

White-throated Quail-Dove ◊ Zentrygon frenata Seen very well at a seed feeder at HDA Bosque.

Lined Quail-Dove ◊ Zentrygon linearis

Eared Dove Zenaida auriculata

Blackish Rail Pardirallus nigricans A confiding individual was seen at Montezuma.

Grey-cowled Wood Rail Aramides cajaneus Heard.

Bogota Rail ◊ Rallus semiplumbeus Endemic. Seen well near Guasca.

Spot-flanked Gallinule ◊ Porphyriops melanops Seen well near Guasca. This isolated, endemic race is a potential split.

Common Gallinule Gallinula galeata

American Coot Fulica americana

Purple Gallinule (American P G) Porphyrio martinica

Russet-crowned Crake Rufirallus viridis Heard.

Limpkin Aramus guarauna

Least Grebe Tachybaptus dominicus

Pied-billed Grebe Podilymbus podiceps

Double-striped Thick-knee Burhinus bistriatus Seen well in the Guajira.

American Oystercatcher Haematopus palliatus

Southern Lapwing Vanellus chilensis

Andean Lapwing Vanellus resplendens A pair showed well at Nevado del Ruiz.

Grey Plover Pluvialis squatarola

Semipalmated Plover Charadrius semipalmatus

Wilson’s Plover Charadrius wilsonia

Wattled Jacana Jacana jacana

Hudsonian Whimbrel Numenius hudsonicus

Ruddy Turnstone Arenaria interpres

Sanderling Calidris alba

Least Sandpiper Calidris minutilla

Semipalmated Sandpiper Calidris pusilla

Western Sandpiper Calidris mauri

Short-billed Dowitcher Limnodromus griseus

Noble Snipe ◊ Gallinago nobilis Three were seen at Sumapaz, including scope views.

Spotted Sandpiper Actitis macularius

Solitary Sandpiper Tringa solitaria

Lesser Yellowlegs Tringa flavipes

Willet (Eastern W) Tringa [semipalmata] semipalmata

Greater Yellowlegs Tringa melanoleuca

Black Skimmer Rynchops niger

Laughing Gull Leucophaeus atricilla

Gull-billed Tern Gelochelidon nilotica

Caspian Tern Hydroprogne caspia

Royal Tern Thalasseus maximus

Cabot’s Tern Thalasseus [acuflavidus] acuflavidus

Common Tern Sterna hirundo

Large-billed Tern Phaetusa simplex

Magnificent Frigatebird Fregata magnificens

Neotropic Cormorant Nannopterum brasilianum

Buff-necked Ibis Theristicus caudatus A couple seen in the Guajira.

Bare-faced Ibis (Whispering I) Phimosus infuscatus

American White Ibis Eudocimus albus

Scarlet Ibis Eudocimus ruber Several were seen in the Guajira.

Glossy Ibis Plegadis falcinellus

Roseate Spoonbill Platalea ajaja

Fasciated Tiger Heron Tigrisoma fasciatum A confiding bird at Rio Claro.

Bare-throated Tiger Heron Tigrisoma mexicanum A single in the mangroves at Salamanca.

Black-crowned Night Heron Nycticorax nycticorax

Green Heron Butorides virescens

Striated Heron Butorides striata

Western Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis

Great Blue Heron Ardea herodias

Cocoi Heron (White-necked H) Ardea cocoi

Great Egret (American G E) Ardea [alba] egretta

Capped Heron Pilherodius pileatus A couple of the edge of the Guajira.

Whistling Heron Syrigma sibilatrix A couple near Bioandino were a surprise.

Reddish Egret Egretta rufescens

Tricolored Heron Egretta tricolor

Little Blue Heron Egretta caerulea

Snowy Egret Egretta thula

Brown Pelican Pelecanus occidentalis

Black Vulture Coragyps atratus

Turkey Vulture Cathartes aura

Lesser Yellow-headed Vulture Cathartes burrovianus

Osprey Pandion [haliaetus] carolinensis

White-tailed Kite Elanus leucurus A couple seen near Bogota.

Pearl Kite Gampsonyx swainsonii A single near Baranquilla.

Hook-billed Kite Chondrohierax uncinatus

Swallow-tailed Kite (American S-t K) Elanoides forficatus

Black Hawk-Eagle Spizaetus tyrannus A soaring bird near Minca.

Black-and-chestnut Eagle ◊ Spizaetus isidori A brief perched bird in the Santa Marta mountains was a trip highlight.

Plain-breasted Hawk Accipiter ventralis

Bicolored Hawk Accipiter bicolor A brief perched individual above Minca.

Plumbeous Kite Ictinia plumbea

Black-collared Hawk Busarellus nigricollis

Snail Kite Rostrhamus sociabilis

Crane Hawk Geranospiza caerulescens A single seen well on the edge of the Guajira.

Savanna Hawk Buteogallus meridionalis

Roadside Hawk Rupornis magnirostris

Black-chested Buzzard-Eagle Geranoaetus melanoleucus A couple were seen at Sumapaz.

Broad-winged Hawk (W) Buteo platypterus

Zone-tailed Hawk Buteo albonotatus Seen well below Minca.

Andean Pygmy Owl ◊ Glaucidium jardinii A rufous morph in the Giles-fuertesi Reserve.

Ferruginous Pygmy Owl Glaucidium brasilianum Seen well in the Guajira.

White-throated Screech Owl ◊ Megascops albogularis Seen well at Rio Blanco.

Tropical Screech Owl Megascops choliba Seen well at Montezuma.

Rufescent Screech Owl ◊ (Colombian S O) Megascops [ingens] colombianus Seen at Otun Quimbaya.

Choco Screech Owl ◊ Megascops centralis Seen well at Rio Claro.

Santa Marta Screech Owl ◊ Megascops gilesi Endemic. Seen well in the El Dorado Reserve.

Spectacled Owl Pulsatrix perspicillata Seen well at Rio Claro.

Mottled Owl Strix virgate Seen in the El Dorado Reserve.

Black-and-white Owl ◊ Strix nigrolineata Seen well in the Santa Marta foothills.

Rufous-banded Owl Strix albitarsis Seen above Jardin.

Golden-headed Quetzal Pharomachrus auriceps Seen at Bioandino.

White-tipped Quetzal ◊ Pharomachrus fulgidus Seen in the El Dorado Reserve.

Crested Quetzal Pharomachrus antisianus Seen at Montezuma.

White-tailed Trogon (Western W-t T) Trogon chionurus

Gartered Trogon (Northern Violaceous T) Trogon caligatus

Collared Trogon Trogon collaris

Masked Trogon Trogon personatus

Green Kingfisher Chloroceryle americana

Ringed Kingfisher Megaceryle torquata

Belted Kingfisher Megaceryle alcyon A single in the Guajira. A scarce migrant in Colombia.

Whooping Motmot Momotus subrufescens

Andean Motmot (Highland M) Momotus aequatorialis

Rufous Motmot Baryphthengus martii

Broad-billed Motmot Electron platyrhynchum

Rufous-tailed Jacamar Galbula ruficauda

White-necked Puffbird Notharchus hyperrhynchus A pair on the Caribbean coast.

Pied Puffbird Notharchus tectus Seen near Rio Claro and at Salamanca. Subspecies subtectus, which is sometimes split as Lesser Pied Puffbird.

Barred Puffbird ◊ Nystalus radiates Seen well at Rio Claro.

Russet-throated Puffbird ◊ Hypnelus ruficollis Seen well near Rio Claro and along the Caribbean coast/Guajira.

White-whiskered Puffbird Malacoptila panamensis Seen well at Rio Claro.

Moustached Puffbird ◊ Malacoptila mystacalis Seen at Pedro Palo and Montezuma.

Lanceolated Monklet Micromonacha lanceolate Seen well at Montezuma.

Grey-cheeked Nunlet ◊ Nonnula frontalis Seen well at Rio Claro.

Spot-crowned Barbet Capito maculicoronatus Seen in the lowlands below Montezuma.

White-mantled Barbet ◊ Capito hypoleucus Endemic. Seen well at Rio Claro.

Red-headed Barbet ◊ Eubucco bourcierii

Toucan Barbet ◊ Semnornis ramphastinus Seen well at Montezuma.

White-throated Toucanet ◊ (Santa Marta T) Aulacorhynchus [albivitta] lautus

White-throated Toucanet ◊ (Grey-throated T) Aulacorhynchus [albivitta] griseigularis

White-throated Toucanet ◊ Aulacorhynchus [albivitta] albivitta

Groove-billed Toucanet ◊ (Yellow-billed T) Aulacorhynchus [sulcatus] calorhynchus Seen well at El Dorado.

Collared Aracari Pteroglossus torquatus

Grey-breasted Mountain Toucan ◊ Andigena hypoglauca Seen at HDA Bosque.

Black-billed Mountain Toucan ◊ Andigena nigrirostris Seen at several Andean sites.

Citron-throated Toucan ◊ Ramphastos citreolaemus Seen at Rio Claro.

Choco Toucan ◊ Ramphastos brevis Seen in the lowlands below Montezuma.

Keel-billed Toucan Ramphastos sulfuratus Seen around the base of the Santa Marta mountains.

Scaled Piculet Picumnus squamulatus Seen well above Minca.

Olivaceous Piculet Picumnus olivaceus

Greyish Piculet ◊ Picumnus granadensis Endemic. Seen well near Apia.

Chestnut Piculet ◊ Picumnus cinnamomeus Seen well in the Guajira and near Baranquilla.

Acorn Woodpecker Melanerpes formicivorus

Beautiful Woodpecker ◊ Melanerpes pulcher Endemic. Seen well at Rio Claro.

Black-cheeked Woodpecker* Melanerpes pucherani

Red-crowned Woodpecker Melanerpes rubricapillus

Yellow-vented Woodpecker ◊ Veniliornis dignus Seen well at Montezuma and Rio Claro.

Bar-bellied Woodpecker Veniliornis nigriceps Seen at HDA Bosque.

Red-rumped Woodpecker Veniliornis kirkii

Smoky-brown Woodpecker Leuconotopicus fumigatus

Golden-green Woodpecker Piculus chrysochloros Heard.

Golden-olive Woodpecker Colaptes rubiginosus

Crimson-mantled Woodpecker Colaptes rivolii

Spot-breasted Woodpecker Colaptes punctigula

Cinnamon Woodpecker Celeus loricatus Seen at Rio Claro.

Lineated Woodpecker Dryocopus lineatus

Powerful Woodpecker ◊ Campephilus pollens Heard.

Crimson-crested Woodpecker Campephilus melanoleucos

Carunculated Caracara Phalcoboenus carunculatus A single at the Giles-fuertesi Reserve.

Crested Caracara (Northern C C) Caracara [plancus] cheriway

Yellow-headed Caracara Milvago chimachima

Laughing Falcon Herpetotheres cachinnans Non leader.

Barred Forest Falcon Micrastur ruficollis Heard.

American Kestrel Falco sparverius

Merlin Falco columbarius A single at the El Dorado Reserve.

Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus A single in the Baranquilla marshes.

Rufous-fronted Parakeet ◊ Bolborhynchus ferrugineifrons Endemic. Eight were seen at Nevado del Ruiz.

Orange-chinned Parakeet Brotogeris jugularis

Rose-faced Parrot Pyrilia pulchra Heard.

Fuertes’s Parrot ◊ Hapalopsittaca fuertesi Endemic. Eight were seen in the Giles-fuertesi Reserve.

Red-billed Parrot Pionus sordidus

White-capped Parrot Pionus seniloides

Blue-headed Parrot Pionus menstruus

Bronze-winged Parrot Pionus chalcopterus

Yellow-crowned Amazon (Y-c Parrot) Amazona ochrocephala

Scaly-naped Amazon (S-n Parrot) Amazona mercenarius

Turquoise-winged Parrotlet ◊ Forpus spengeli Endemic.Three were seen near Baranquilla.

Green-rumped Parrotlet Forpus passerines A single in the Guajira.

Spectacled Parrotlet ◊ Forpus conspicillatus Seen on multiple days during the tour.

Santa Marta Parakeet ◊ Pyrrhura viridicata Endemic. A group were seen well on the ridge at El Dorado.

Flame-winged Parakeet ◊ Pyrrhura calliptera Endemic. Heard.

Brown-throated Parakeet Eupsittula pertinax

Chestnut-fronted Macaw Ara severus

Military Macaw Ara militaris A total of fifty three flew in to roost in the Santa Marta foothills.

Golden-plumed Parakeet ◊ Leptosittaca branickii Seen well at the wax palms near Cajamarca.

Yellow-eared Parrot ◊ Ognorhynchus icterotis Endemic. Twenty were seen in the wax palms near Cajamarca.

Blue-crowned Parakeet Thectocercus acuticaudatus A couple were seen in the Guajira.

Scarlet-fronted Parakeet Psittacara wagleri

Grey-throated Leaftosser Sclerurus albigularis Seen well in the Santa Marta mountains.

Tyrannine Woodcreeper Dendrocincla tyrannina

Ruddy Woodcreeper Dendrocincla homochroa One seen well at an antswarm in the Santa Marta foothills.

Plain-brown Woodcreeper Dendrocincla fuliginosa

Wedge-billed Woodcreeper Glyphorynchus spirurus

Black-banded Woodcreeper Dendrocolaptes picumnus

Strong-billed Woodcreeper Xiphocolaptes promeropirhynchus

Cocoa Woodcreeper Xiphorhynchus susurrans

Spotted Woodcreeper Xiphorhynchus erythropygius Seen on the lower slopes at Montezuma.

Straight-billed Woodcreeper Dendroplex picus

Red-billed Scythebill Campylorhamphus trochilirostris A skulking bird at Rio Claro.

Streak-headed Woodcreeper Lepidocolaptes souleyetii

Montane Woodcreeper Lepidocolaptes lacrymiger

Plain Xenops Xenops genibarbis

Streaked Xenops Xenops rutilans

Pacific Tuftedcheek ◊ Pseudocolaptes johnsoni Seen at Montezuma.

Streaked Tuftedcheek Pseudocolaptes boissonneautii

Caribbean Hornero ◊ Furnarius longirostris

Chestnut-winged Cinclodes ◊ Cinclodes albidiventris Seen at Sumapaz.

Stout-billed Cinclodes ◊ Cinclodes excelsior

Montane Foliage-gleaner Anabacerthia striaticollis

Lineated Foliage-gleaner Syndactyla subalaris

Buff-fronted Foliage-gleaner Dendroma rufa

Santa Marta Foliage-gleaner ◊ Clibanornis rufipectus Endemic. Seen well in the Santa Marta foothills.

Uniform Treehunter ◊ Thripadectes ignobilis Heard.

Flammulated Treehunter ◊ Thripadectes flammulatus Seen at Rio Blanco and Santa Marta.

Streak-capped Treehunter ◊ Thripadectes virgaticeps Seen at Otun.

Spotted Barbtail Premnoplex brunnescens

Star-chested Treerunner ◊ (Fulvous-dotted T) Margarornis stellatus Seen at Montezuma.

Pearled Treerunner Margarornis squamiger

Andean Tit-Spinetail Leptasthenura andicola

White-browed Spinetail ◊ Hellmayrea gularis

Many-striped Canastero ◊ Asthenes flammulata

White-chinned Thistletail ◊ Asthenes fuliginosa

Red-faced Spinetail Cranioleuca erythrops

Streak-capped Spinetail ◊ Cranioleuca hellmayri Endemic. Seen in the El Dorado Reserve.

Ash-browed Spinetail Cranioleuca curtata Seen at Pedro Palo.

Yellow-chinned Spinetail Certhiaxis cinnamomeus

Slaty Spinetail Synallaxis brachyuran Heard.

Silvery-throated Spinetail ◊ Synallaxis subpudica Endemic. Seen below Sumapaz.

Pale-breasted Spinetail Synallaxis albescens

Azara’s Spinetail Synallaxis azarae

White-whiskered Spinetail ◊ Synallaxis candei Seen in the Guajira.

Rusty-headed Spinetail ◊ Synallaxis fuscorufa Endemic. Seen in the El Dorado Reserve.

Rufous Spinetail Synallaxis unirufa

Stripe-breasted Spinetail Synallaxis cinnamomea Seen at Pedro Palo.

Rufous-rumped Antwren Euchrepomis callinota Seen at Montezuma.

Russet Antshrike Thamnistes anabatinus Seen at Montezuma.

Moustached Antwren ◊ Myrmotherula ignota Seen in the lowlands below Montezuma.

Pacific Antwren ◊ (P Streaked A) Myrmotherula pacifica Seen in the lowlands below Montezuma.

White-flanked Antwren Myrmotherula axillaris Heard.

Slaty Antwren Myrmotherula schisticolor

Northern White-fringed Antwren Formicivora intermedia

Black-backed Antshrike ◊ Thamnophilus melanonotus Seen well in the Guajira.

Barred Antshrike Thamnophilus doliatus

Bar-crested Antshrike ◊ Thamnophilus multistriatus

Uniform Antshrike Thamnophilus unicolor Heard.

Black-crowned Antshrike (Western Slaty A) Thamnophilus atrinucha

Black-crested Antshrike Sakesphorus canadensis

Santa Marta Antbird ◊ Drymophila hellmayri Endemic. Seen well in the Santa Marta foothills.

Streak-headed Antbird ◊ Drymophila striaticeps Heard.

Parker’s Antbird ◊ Cercomacroides parkeri Endemic. Seen well at Montezuma.

Chestnut-backed Antbird Poliocrania exsul

Magdalena Antbird ◊ Sipia palliate Heard.

White-bellied Antbird Myrmeciza longipes Seen well at Coello.

Zeledon’s Antbird Hafferia zeledoni Heard.

Rufous-breasted Antthrush ◊ Formicarius rufipectus Heard.

Moustached Antpitta ◊ Grallaria alleni Heard.

Chestnut-crowned Antpitta Grallaria ruficapilla Seen well at the feeders at Rio Blanco.

Santa Marta Antpitta ◊ Grallaria bangsi Endemic. Seen well in the El Dorado bird Reserve.

Chestnut-naped Antpitta ◊ Grallaria nuchalis Seen at the Giles-fuertesi Reserve and at the feeder above Jardin.

Yellow-breasted Antpitta ◊ Grallaria flavotincta A couple were seen briefly at Montezuma.

Sierra Nevada Antpitta ◊ Grallaria spatiator Endemic. Seen briefly on the road at El Dorado.

Muisca Antpitta ◊ Grallaria rufula Seen at a feeder near Guasca.

Bicolored Antpitta ◊ Grallaria rufocinerea Seen at the Giles-fuertesi Reserve and heard at Rio Blanco.

Chami Antpitta ◊ Grallaria alvarezi Endemic. Seen well at the feeder above Jardin.

Equatorial Antpitta ◊ Grallaria saturata Seen well at the feeders at HDA Bosque.

Tawny Antpitta ◊ (Western T A) Grallaria quitensis Seen well at Nevado del Ruiz.

Boyaca Antpitta ◊ Grallaria alticola Endemic. Several were seen well at Sumapaz.

Brown-banded Antpitta ◊ Grallaria milleri Endemic. Seen well at Sumapaz.

Ochre-breasted Antpitta Grallaricula flavirostris Seen well at Montezuma.

Hooded Antpitta ◊ Grallaricula cucullata Heard and Otun and glimpsed at Montezuma.

Rusty-breasted Antpitta ◊ Grallaricula ferrugineipectus Seen well in the Santa Marta foothills.

Slaty-crowned Antpitta Grallaricula nana Seen well at Rio Blanco.

Crescent-faced Antpitta ◊ Grallaricula lineifrons Seen well at HDA Bosque.

Ocellated Tapaculo ◊ Acropternis orthonyx Seen well at Nevado del Ruiz.

Ash-colored Tapaculo ◊ Myornis senilis

Paramo Tapaculo ◊ Scytalopus opacus Seen well at Nevado del Ruiz.

Santa Marta Tapaculo ◊ Scytalopus sanctaemartae Endemic. Seen well in the Santa Marta foothills.

Blackish Tapaculo ◊ Scytalopus latrans Seen well at Rio Blanco.

Narino Tapaculo ◊ Scytalopus vicinior Seen at Montezuma.

Choco Tapaculo ◊ Scytalopus chocoensis Seen at Montezuma.

Stiles’s Tapaculo ◊ Scytalopus stilesi Endemic. Heard.

Tatama Tapaculo ◊ (Alto Pisones T) Scytalopus alvarezlopezi Endemic. Seen well at Apia Birding Lodge.

Pale-bellied Tapaculo ◊ (Mattoral T) Scytalopus griseicollis Seen well at Bioandino.

Brown-rumped Tapaculo ◊ Scytalopus latebricola Endemic. Seen well in the El Dorado Reserve.

Spillmann’s Tapaculo ◊ Scytalopus spillmanni Heard.

Wing-barred Piprites Piprites chloris Non-leader.

Sooty-headed Tyrannulet Phyllomyias griseiceps

Plumbeous-crowned Tyrannulet ◊ Phyllomyias plumbeiceps Seen well at Otun.

Black-capped Tyrannulet Phyllomyias nigrocapillus

Tawny-rumped Tyrannulet ◊ Phyllomyias uropygialis Seen well at Sumapaz.

Yellow-crowned Tyrannulet Tyrannulus elatus

Forest Elaenia Myiopagis gaimardii

Greenish Elaenia Myiopagis viridicata

Yellow-bellied Elaenia Elaenia flavogaster

Lesser Elaenia Elaenia chiriquensis Seen in the Santa Marta foothills.

Mountain Elaenia Elaenia frantzii

Southern Beardless Tyrannulet Camptostoma obsoletum

White-throated Tyrannulet Mecocerculus leucophrys

White-tailed Tyrannulet Mecocerculus poecilocercus

White-banded Tyrannulet Mecocerculus stictopterus

Torrent Tyrannulet Serpophaga cinerea

Northern Mouse-colored Tyrannulet* Nesotriccus incomtus

Rufous-headed Pygmy Tyrant Pseudotriccus ruficeps

Fulvous-crowned Scrub Tyrant ◊ Euscarthmus meloryphus Seen well near Coello and heard in the Guajira.

Spectacled Tyrannulet ◊ Zimmerius improbus Seen in the Santa Marta foothills.

Golden-faced Tyrannulet ◊ Zimmerius chrysops

Coopmans’s Tyrannulet ◊ Zimmerius minimus

Variegated Bristle Tyrant Pogonotriccus poecilotis Seen at Otun.

Marble-faced Bristle Tyrant Pogonotriccus ophthalmicus

Antioquia Bristle Tyrant ◊ Pogonotriccus lanyoni Endemic. Seen well at Rio Claro.

Rufous-browed Tyrannulet ◊ Phylloscartes superciliaris Seen at Montezuma.

Streak-necked Flycatcher Mionectes striaticollis

Olive-striped Flycatcher Mionectes galbinus

Ochre-bellied Flycatcher Mionectes oleagineus

Sepia-capped Flycatcher Leptopogon amaurocephalus

Slaty-capped Flycatcher Leptopogon superciliaris

Rufous-breasted Flycatcher ◊ Leptopogon rufipectus

Northern Scrub Flycatcher Sublegatus arenarum

Slender-billed Inezia ◊ Inezia tenuirostris Seen well in the Guajira.

Pale-tipped Inezia ◊ (P-t Tyrannulet) Inezia caudate Seen well in the Guajira.

Flavescent Flycatcher ◊ Myiophobus flavicans

Bran-colored Flycatcher Myiophobus fasciatus Heard.

Handsome Flycatcher ◊ Nephelomyias pulcher

Ornate Flycatcher ◊ Myiotriccus ornatus

Pearly-vented Tody-Tyrant Hemitriccus margaritaceiventer

Black-throated Tody-Tyrant ◊ Hemitriccus granadensis

Southern Bentbill ◊ Oncostoma olivaceum Seen at Rio Claro.

Scale-crested Pygmy Tyrant Lophotriccus pileatus

Pale-eyed Pygmy Tyrant Atalotriccus pilaris

Rufous-crowned Tody-Flycatcher Poecilotriccus ruficeps

Slaty-headed Tody-Flycatcher Poecilotriccus Sylvia Heard.

Common Tody-Flycatcher Todirostrum cinereum

Black-headed Tody-Flycatcher Todirostrum nigriceps

Fulvous-breasted Flatbill Rhynchocyclus fulvipectus Seen at Montezuma.

Western Olivaceous Flatbill Rhynchocyclus aequinoctialis

Yellow-olive Flatbill (Y-o Flycatcher) Tolmomyias sulphurescens

Ochre-lored Flatbill (O-l Flycatcher) Tolmomyias flaviventris

Cinnamon Flycatcher Pyrrhomyias cinnamomeus

Black Phoebe Sayornis nigricans

Smoke-colored Pewee Contopus fumigatus

Acadian Flycatcher Empidonax virescens

Vermilion Flycatcher Pyrocephalus obscurus

Red-rumped Bush Tyrant ◊ Cnemarchus erythropygius Seen at Sumapaz.

Streak-throated Bush Tyrant Myiotheretes striaticollis

Santa Marta Bush Tyrant ◊ Myiotheretes pernix Endemic. Seen at the El Dorado Reserve.

Smoky Bush TyrantMyiotheretes fumigatus

Pied Water Tyrant Fluvicola pica

White-headed Marsh Tyrant Arundinicola leucocephala

Yellow-bellied Chat-Tyrant ◊ Silvicultrix diadema

Slaty-backed Chat-Tyrant ◊ Ochthoeca cinnamomeiventris Heard.

Rufous-breasted Chat-Tyrant Ochthoeca rufipectoralis

Brown-backed Chat-Tyrant Ochthoeca fumicolor

Long-tailed Tyrant Colonia colonus

Cattle Tyrant Machetornis rixosa

Piratic Flycatcher Legatus leucophaius

Rusty-margined Flycatcher Myiozetetes cayanensis

Social Flycatcher Myiozetetes similis

Grey-capped Flycatcher Myiozetetes granadensis Seen in the lowlands below Montezuma.

Great Kiskadee Pitangus sulphuratus

Lesser Kiskadee Philohydor lictor

Golden-bellied Flycatcher Myiodynastes hemichrysus

Streaked Flycatcher Myiodynastes maculatus

Boat-billed Flycatcher Megarynchus pitangua

Tropical Kingbird Tyrannus melancholicus

Fork-tailed Flycatcher Tyrannus savana

Grey Kingbird Tyrannus dominicensis Seen at Camarones.

Dusky-capped Flycatcher Myiarchus tuberculifer

Panama Flycatcher ◊ Myiarchus panamensis Seen at Isla Salamanca.

Apical Flycatcher ◊ Myiarchus apicalis Endemic. Seen in the Cauca valley.

Pale-edged Flycatcher Myiarchus cephalotes

Great Crested Flycatcher Myiarchus crinitus

Brown-crested Flycatcher Myiarchus tyrannulus

Bright-rumped Attila ◊ (Flammulated A) Attila spadiceus Heard.

Scaled Fruiteater ◊ Ampelioides tschudii Heard.

Orange-breasted Fruiteater ◊ Pipreola jucunda Seen well at Montezuma.

Golden-breasted Fruiteater ◊ Pipreola aureopectus Seen well in the Santa Marta foothills.

Barred Fruiteater Pipreola arcuate Seen well at HDA Bosque.

Green-and-black Fruiteater Pipreola riefferii

Olivaceous Piha ◊ Snowornis cryptolophus Seen well at Montezuma.

Andean Cock-of-the-rock Rupicola peruvianus Seen well at the lek at Jardin.

Red-crested Cotinga ◊ Ampelion rubrocristatus Seen at the Giles-fuertesi Reserve.

Red-ruffed Fruitcrow Pyroderus scutatus Seen well at Otun.

Dusky Piha ◊ Lipaugus fuscocinereus Heard.

Lance-tailed Manakin Chiroxiphia lanceolate Seen on the north coast.

Golden-winged Manakin ◊ Masius chrysopterus

Velvety Manakin Lepidothrix velutina Seen at Rio Claro.

White-bearded Manakin Manacus manacus

Club-winged Manakin ◊ Machaeropterus deliciosus Seen at Montezuma.

Striolated Manakin ◊ Machaeropterus striolatus

Golden-headed Manakin Ceratopipra erythrocephala Heard.

Masked Tityra Tityra semifasciata

Barred Becard Pachyramphus versicolor

Cinnamon Becard Pachyramphus cinnamomeus

White-winged Becard Pachyramphus polychopterus

One-colored Becard Pachyramphus homochrous

Rufous-browed Peppershrike Cyclarhis gujanensis

Black-billed Peppershrike ◊ Cyclarhis nigrirostris

Slaty-capped Shrike-Vireo Vireolanius leucotis Seen at Montezuma.

Scrub Greenlet Hylophilus flavipes

Golden-fronted Greenlet Pachysylvia aurantiifrons Seen on the north coast.

Rufous-naped Greenlet ◊ Pachysylvia semibrunnea

Chivi Vireo Vireo chivi

Brown-capped Vireo Vireo leucophrys

Yellow-throated Vireo Vireo flavifrons

Black-collared Jay ◊ Cyanolyca armillata Seen at the Giles-fuertesi Reserve.

Beautiful Jay ◊ Cyanolyca pulchra Seen at Montezuma.

Black-chested Jay ◊ Cyanocorax affinis

Inca Jay Cyanocorax yncas

White-thighed Swallow Atticora tibialis

Blue-and-white Swallow Pygochelidon cyanoleuca

Brown-bellied Swallow Orochelidon murina

Southern Rough-winged Swallow Stelgidopteryx ruficollis

Brown-chested Martin Progne tapera A single seen in the Baranquilla marshes.

Grey-breasted Martin Progne chalybea

Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica

Cliff Swallow Petrochelidon nigricans A flock of forty migrating over Sumapaz.

Band-backed Wren Campylorhynchus zonatus

Stripe-backed Wren Campylorhynchus nuchalis Seen near Baranquilla.

Bicolored Wren Campylorhynchus griseus

Rufous Wren Cinnycerthia unirufa Heard.

Sepia-brown Wren (Sharpe’s W) Cinnycerthia olivascens

Apolinar’s Wren ◊ (A Marsh W) Cistothorus apolinari Endemic. Seen well at Sumapaz.

Grass Wren (Grass W) Cistothorus platensis

Sooty-headed Wren ◊ Pheugopedius spadix Seen well at Montezuma.

Black-bellied Wren ◊ Pheugopedius fasciatoventris

Whiskered Wren Pheugopedius mystacalis Heard.

Rufous-breasted Wren Pheugopedius rutilus

Speckle-breasted Wren ◊ (Colombian W) Pheugopedius [sclateri] columbianus Seen at Pedro Palo.

Rufous-and-white Wren Thryophilus rufalbus

Antioquia Wren ◊ Thryophilus sernaim Endemic. Seen well in the Cauca valley.

Buff-breasted Wren Cantorchilus leucotis

Bay Wren Cantorchilus nigricapillus

House Wren Troglodytes aedon

Mountain Wren Troglodytes solstitialis

White-breasted Wood Wren Henicorhina leucosticta

Grey-breasted Wood Wren Henicorhina leucophrys

Hermit Wood Wren ◊ Henicorhina anachoreta Endemic. Seen well in the El Dorado Reserve.

Munchique Wood Wren ◊ Henicorhina negreti Endemic. Seen well at Montezuma.

Southern Nightingale-Wren Microcerculus marginatus Heard.

Chestnut-breasted Wren ◊ Cyphorhinus thoracicus heard at Otun and glimpsed at Montezuma.

Trilling Gnatwren Ramphocaenus melanurus

Tropical Gnatcatcher Polioptila plumbea

Tropical Mockingbird Mimus gilvus

Andean Solitaire Myadestes ralloides

Black Solitaire ◊ Entomodestes coracinus Seen at Montezuma.

Orange-billed Nightingale-Thrush Catharus aurantiirostris

Slaty-backed Nightingale-Thrush Catharus fuscater Seen in the El Dorado Reserve.

Swainson’s Thrush Catharus ustulatus

Pale-eyed Thrush Turdus leucops Heard.

Glossy-black Thrush Turdus serranus

Black-hooded Thrush ◊ Turdus olivater

Great Thrush Turdus fuscater

Black-billed Thrush Turdus ignobilis

Yellow-legged Thrush Turdus flavipes

White-necked Thrush Turdus albicollis Seen in the Santa Marta foothills.

Pale-breasted Thrush Turdus leucomelas

White-capped Dipper Cinclus leucocephalus Two were seen at Otun Quimbaya.

House Sparrow (introduced) Passer domesticus

Tricoloured Munia Lonchura Malacca This introduced species was seen in the Cauca valley.

Lesser Goldfinch Spinus psaltria

Yellow-bellied Siskin Spinus xanthogastrus

Andean Siskin ◊ Spinus spinescens

Blue-naped Chlorophonia Chlorophonia cyanea

Chestnut-breasted Chlorophonia ◊ Chlorophonia pyrrhophrys Seen at Montezuma.

Yellow-collared Chlorophonia ◊ Chlorophonia flavirostris Seen at Montezuma.

Velvet-fronted Euphonia ◊ Euphonia concinna Endemic. Seen well at Coello.

Trinidad Euphonia ◊ Euphonia trinitatis Seen in the Guajira.

White-vented Euphonia Euphonia minuta Seen in the lowlands below Montezuma.

Thick-billed Euphonia Euphonia laniirostris

Fulvous-vented Euphonia ◊ Euphonia fulvicrissa Seen at Rio Claro.

Orange-bellied Euphonia Euphonia xanthogaster

Rosy Thrush-tanager Rhodinocichla rosea A skulking bird showed briefly in the Santa Marta foothills.

Tanager Finch ◊ Oreothraupis arremonops Fantastic views of two at Montezuma.

Yellow-throated Chlorospingus Chlorospingus flavigularis

Ashy-throated Chlorospingus Chlorospingus canigularis

Common Chlorospingus Chlorospingus flavopectus

Dusky Chlorospingus (Dusky-bellied B T) Chlorospingus semifuscus

Black-striped Sparrow ◊ Arremonops conirostris

Tocuyo Sparrow ◊ Arremonops tocuyensis Seen well in the Guajira.

Sierra Nevada Brushfinch ◊ Arremon basilicus Endemic. Seen well in the Santa Marta mountains.

Grey-browed Brushfinch Arremon assimilis

Golden-winged Sparrow ◊ Arremon schlegeli Seen well in the Santa Marta foothills.

Chestnut-capped Brushfinch Arremon brunneinucha

Rufous-collared Sparrow Zonotrichia capensis

White-naped Brushfinch Atlapetes albinucha

Moustached Brushfinch ◊ Atlapetes albofrenatus Seen well at Pedro Palo.

Santa Marta Brushfinch ◊ Atlapetes melanocephalus Endemic. Seen well in the Santa Marta mountains.

Yellow-headed Brushfinch ◊ Atlapetes flaviceps Endemic. Seen well near Cajamarca.

Choco Brushfinch ◊ Atlapetes crassus Seen well at Montezuma.

Slaty Brushfinch Atlapetes schistaceus

Pale-naped Brushfinch ◊ Atlapetes pallidinucha

Eastern Meadowlark Sturnella magna

Red-breasted Blackbird Leistes militaris

Yellow-billed Cacique Amblycercus holosericeus Heard.

Chestnut-headed Oropendola Psarocolius wagleri

Russet-backed Oropendola Psarocolius angustifrons

Crested Oropendola Psarocolius decumanus

Baudo Oropendola ◊ Psarocolius cassini Endemic. Seen well below Montezuma.

Yellow-rumped Cacique Cacicus cela

Mountain Cacique ◊ (Northern M C) Cacicus [chrysonotus] leucoramphus

Yellow-backed Oriole Icterus chrysater

Yellow Oriole Icterus nigrogularis

Orange-crowned Oriole* Icterus auricapillus

Giant Cowbird Molothrus oryzivorus

Shiny Cowbird Molothrus bonariensis

Bronze-brown Cowbird ◊ Molothrus armenti Endemic. Seen well near Baranquilla.

Carib Grackle Quiscalus lugubris

Great-tailed Grackle Quiscalus mexicanus

Red-bellied Grackle ◊ Hypopyrrhus pyrohypogaster Seen well at Jardin.

Yellow-hooded Blackbird Chrysomus icterocephalus

Northern Waterthrush Parkesia noveboracensis

Black-and-white Warbler Mniotilta varia

Prothonotary Warbler Protonotaria citrea

Tennessee Warbler Leiothlypis peregrina

Mourning WarblerGeothlypis philadelphia

American Redstart Setophaga ruticilla

Cerulean Warbler Setophaga cerulean A single male at Pedro Palo.

Tropical Parula Setophaga pitiayumi

Bay-breasted Warbler Setophaga castanea

Blackburnian Warbler Setophaga fusca

American Yellow Warbler Setophaga aestiva

Santa Marta Warbler ◊ Myiothlypis basilica Endemic. Seen well at the El Dorado Reserve.

Black-crested Warbler Myiothlypis nigrocristata

Buff-rumped Warbler Myiothlypis fulvicauda

Choco Warbler ◊ Myiothlypis chlorophrys Seen well at Montezuma.

White-lored Warbler ◊ Myiothlypis conspicillata Endemic. Seen well in the Santa Marta foothills.

Russet-crowned Warbler Myiothlypis coronata

Chestnut-capped Warbler ◊ Basileuterus delattrii

Golden-crowned Warbler Basileuterus culicivorus

Three-striped Warbler Basileuterus tristriatus

Canada Warbler Cardellina canadensis

Slate-throated Whitestart (S-t Redstart) Myioborus miniatus

Yellow-crowned Whitestart ◊ (Y-c Redstart) Myioborus flavivertex Endemic. Seen well in the El Dorado Reserve.

Golden-fronted Whitestart ◊ (Yellow-f W) Myioborus [ornatus] ornatus Seen on numerous day in the Andes. This form may be split as a Colombian endemic in the future.

Golden-fronted Whitestart ◊ Myioborus [ornatus] chrysops This whites spectacled form was seen on a couple of days in the eastern Andes near Bogota.

Dusky-faced Tanager Mitrospingus cassinii

Tooth-billed Tanager* (Highland Hepatic T) Piranga lutea

Summer Tanager Piranga rubra

White-winged Tanager Piranga leucoptera Seen briefly at Montezuma.

Red-hooded Tanager Piranga rubriceps Nice views of several in the canopy at Rio Blanco.

Sooty Ant Tanager ◊ Habia gutturalis Endemic. Seen well at Rio Claro.

Crested Ant Tanager ◊ Habia cristata Endemic. Seen well at Otun and Montezuma.

Ochre-breasted Tanager ◊ Chlorothraupis stolzmanni Seen at Montezuma.

Rose-breasted Grosbeak Pheucticus ludovicianus

Vermilion Cardinal ◊ Cardinalis phoeniceus Seen well in the Guajira.

Blue-black Grosbeak Cyanoloxia cyanoides

White-capped Tanager ◊ Sericossypha albocristata Heard.

Green Honeycreeper Chlorophanes spiza

Golden-collared Honeycreeper ◊ Iridophanes pulcherrimus Seen at Montezuma.

Yellow-backed Tanager Hemithraupis flavicollis

Guira Tanager Hemithraupis guira

Swallow Tanager Tersina viridis

Purple Honeycreeper Cyanerpes caeruleus

Red-legged Honeycreeper Cyanerpes cyaneus

Blue Dacnis Dacnis cayana

Scarlet-thighed Dacnis Dacnis venusta Seen in the lowlands below Montezuma

Turquoise Dacnis ◊ Dacnis hartlaubi Seen well at Pedro Palo.

Yellow-tufted Dacnis ◊ Dacnis egregia

Orinoco Saltator ◊ Saltator orenocensis Seen well in the Guajira.

Bluish-grey Saltator Saltator coerulescens

Streaked Saltator Saltator striatipectus

Buff-throated Saltator Saltator maximus

Slate-colored Grosbeak Saltator grossus Seen well at Rio Claro.

Masked Saltator ◊ Saltator cinctus Two were seen belwo the Giles-fuertesi Reserve. A trip highlight.

Bananaquit Coereba flaveola

Yellow-faced Grassquit Tiaris olivaceus

Black-faced Grassquit Melanospiza bicolor

Dull-colored Grassquit* Asemospiza obscura

Blue-black Grassquit Volatinia jacarina

Grey-headed Tanager Eucometis penicillata

White-shouldered Tanager Loriotus luctuosus

Grey Pileated Finch Coryphospingus pileatus

Tawny-crested Tanager Tachyphonus delatrii

White-lined Tanager Tachyphonus rufus

Flame-rumped Tanager ◊ Ramphocelus flammigerus Endemic. Seen at Montezuma.

Lemon-rumped Tanager ◊ Ramphocelus icteronotus

Crimson-backed Tanager ◊ Ramphocelus dimidiatus

Variable Seedeater Sporophila corvina Seen below Montezuma.

Grey Seedeater Sporophila intermedia

Yellow-bellied Seedeater Sporophila nigricollis

Thick-billed Seed Finch Sporophila funerea

Ruddy-breasted Seedeater Sporophila minuta

Grey-hooded Bush Tanager Cnemoscopus rubrirostris

Superciliaried Hemispingus Thlypopsis superciliaris

Bicolored Conebill Conirostrum bicolor Seen well at Salamanca.

Capped Conebill Conirostrum albifrons

Blue-backed Conebill Conirostrum sitticolor

Rufous-browed Conebill ◊ Conirostrum rufum Seen well at Sumapaz.

Saffron Finch Sicalis flaveola

Plumbeous Sierra Finch Geospizopsis unicolor

Plain-colored Seedeater Catamenia inornata

Paramo Seedeater Catamenia homochroa

Bluish Flowerpiercer Diglossa caerulescens

Masked Flowerpiercer Diglossa cyanea

Indigo Flowerpiercer ◊ Diglossa indigotica Seen well at Montezuma.

Rusty Flowerpiercer Diglossa sittoides

Glossy Flowerpiercer Diglossa lafresnayii

Chestnut-bellied Flowerpiercer ◊ Diglossa gloriosissima Endemic. Seen well at Montezuma.

White-sided Flowerpiercer Diglossa albilatera

Black Flowerpiercer Diglossa humeralis

Purplish-mantled Tanager ◊ Iridosornis porphyrocephalus Seen well at Montezuma.

Golden-crowned Tanager ◊ Iridosornis rufivertex Non-leader.

Fawn-breasted Tanager Pipraeidea melanonota

Buff-breasted Mountain Tanager Dubusia taeniata

Hooded Mountain Tanager Buthraupis montana

Blue-capped Tanager Sporathraupis cyanocephala

Grass-green Tanager Chlorornis riefferii

Blue-winged Mountain Tanager Anisognathus somptuosus

Black-chinned Mountain Tanager ◊ Anisognathus notabilis

Santa Marta Mountain Tanager ◊ Anisognathus melanogenys Endemic. Seen well in the El Dorado Reserve.

Scarlet-bellied Mountain Tanager Anisognathus igniventris

Lacrimose Mountain Tanager Anisognathus lacrymosus

Glistening-green Tanager ◊ Chlorochrysa phoenicotis Seen well at Montezuma.

Multicolored Tanager ◊ Chlorochrysa nitidissima Seen at Montezuma.

Gold-ringed Tanager ◊ Bangsia aureocincta Endemic. Seen well at Montezuma.

Black-and-gold Tanager ◊ Bangsia melanochlamys Endemic. Seen well at Montezuma.

Rufous-throated Tanager Ixothraupis rufigula Seen well at Montezuma.

Golden-naped Tanager Chalcothraupis ruficervix A single at Pedro Palo.

Blue-grey Tanager Thraupis episcopus

Glaucous Tanager ◊ Thraupis glaucocolpa Seen well in the Guajira.

Palm Tanager Thraupis palmarum

Black-headed Tanager ◊ Stilpnia cyanoptera

Black-capped Tanager Stilpnia heinei

Golden-hooded Tanager* Stilpnia larvata

Blue-necked Tanager Stilpnia cyanicollis

Scrub Tanager ◊ Stilpnia vitriolina

Blue-and-black Tanager Tangara vassorii

Beryl-spangled Tanager Tangara nigroviridis

Metallic-green Tanager ◊ Tangara labradorides Seen at Pedro Palo.

Bay-headed Tanager Tangara gyrola

Rufous-winged Tanager ◊ Tangara livinia  Seen in the lowlands below Montezuma.

Saffron-crowned Tanager Tangara xanthocephala

Flame-faced Tanager Tangara parzudakii Seen at Pedro Palo and Montezuma.

Blue-whiskered Tanager ◊ Tangara johannae Seen in the lowlands below Montezuma.

Golden Tanager Tangara arthus

Silver-throated Tanager Tangara icterocephala

Plain-colored Tanager ◊ Tangara inornata



Crab-eating Fox Cerdocyon thous Seen at Montezuma Lodge.

South American Coati Nasua nasua A single at Rio Blanco was either this species or Western Mountain Coati.

Colombian Red Howler Alouatta seniculus Seen at Otun and on the north coast.

Andean Tapeti Sylvilagus andinus Rabbits seen on a couple of day fall under the umbrella of Andean Tapeti but probably refer to an undescribed species.

Lesser Capybara Hydrochoreus isthmius A single in the Baranquilla marshes. A new mammal for the tour.

Central American Agouti Dasyprocta punctata Seen at several sites.

Western Dwarf Squirrel Microsciurus mimulus Dwarf Squirrels were seen at several sites and probably relate to more than one species. Geographic range and identification of Dwarf Squirrels in the neotropics is very poorly defined.

Red-tailed Squirrel (Tropical Red S) Sciurus granatensis Seen on multiple days during the trip.