The Ultimate In Birding Tours

Asia (and its islands)

BORNEO: SABAH & SARAWAK, MALAYSIA – The Ultimate Bornean endemics tour


Birdquest’s Borneo birding tours to the Sabah and Sarawak States in Malaysia are a classic Asian birding tour experience in by far the richest part of this huge island for Bornean endemics. Our Borneo birding tour offers very comprehensive coverage of both the Sabah and Sarawak provinces of Malaysia, including Sabah’s Crocker Range, Mount Kinabalu (the highest mountain in Malaysia and indeed all Southeast Asia), the Kinabatangan River, Danum Valley Nature Reserve and the Klias wetlands, and the Ba’kalalan highlands and Paya Maga in Sarawak. This exciting adventure produces a very rich bird list, including an extraordinary number of Bornean endemics. These, notably, include the monotypic Bornean Bristlehead and no fewer than four species of pitta!

Borneo – island of head-hunters, orang-utans and mighty Mount Kinabalu, the highest peak between the Himalayas and New Guinea. For several centuries after its discovery by Europeans, this great equatorial island remained shrouded in mystery. Fables grew up about the ‘Wild Men of Borneo’, the fearsome Dyaks who brought the heads of their enemies back to their longhouses. In the 19th century, the island came under British and Dutch colonial rule, passing later, with the exception of the tiny sultanate of Brunei, to newly independent Malaysia and Indonesia. Even today settlement is largely confined to coastal areas and much of the interior remains remote.

From a wildlife viewpoint, Borneo is one of the richest places on earth. Tropical rainforests originally covered almost the entire island and, although widespread felling is now seriously shrinking the forest, vast tracts remain and support an exotic profusion of flora and fauna. A visit to Malaysia’s Sabah province in northern Borneo, a classic Asian birding tour if ever there was one, offers the chance to see the island’s rich and varied birdlife, which includes many endemic species, ranging from trogons to broadbills and from black-eyes to bristleheads, and also numerous other species restricted to the Indo-Malayan faunal subregion. Indeed, Bornean Bristlehead is now considered a monotypic bird family, so for anyone interested in seeing all the bird families of the world, Borneo is a key destination.

During this exciting journey, we shall explore the states of Sabah and Sarawak in northern Borneo, which are politically part of Malaysia, visiting several very different areas in which we can expect to observe the great majority of Borneo’s over 50 avian endemics.

Our Borneo birding tour commences at Kota Kinabalu, the provincial capital, where we shall explore some areas of wetland and grassland, but we shall pause only briefly at the coast before heading off into the interior.

We first explore the Crocker Range. Here we have great chances for such endemics as Bornean and Mountain Barbets, the vivid Whitehead’s Broadbill, Bornean Leafbird, Bornean Bulbul and Bare-headed Laughingthrush.

The majestic, rugged massif of Mount Kinabalu rises to 4101m, towering above the surrounding lowlands. Kinabalu dwarfs all other mountains in Borneo and the temperate climate at higher levels has resulted in the evolution of many endemic plants and animals. We should see many of Borneo’s endemics here, including Crimson-headed and Red-breasted Partridges, Bornean Swiftlet, Whitehead’s Trogon, Golden-naped Barbet, Fruithunter, Bornean Green Magpie, Bornean Treepie, Mountain Wren-Babbler, Chestnut-hooded Laughingthrush, Chestnut-crested Yuhina, and the diminutive Bornean Stubtail, Bornean Whistling Thrush, Bornean Forktail, Bornean Whistler, Eyebrowed Jungle Flycatcher, Black-sided Flowerpecker, Mountain Black-eye, Black-capped White-eye and hopefully Everett’s Thrush.

Next, we explore the huge caves at Gomantong, home of literally millions of bats and swiftlets. We will then move on to the Lower Kinabatangan Conservation Area, where we will look for the rare Storm’s Stork, Wrinkled Hornbill, the shy endemic Bornean Ground Cuckoo and the endemic Dusky Munia, as well as the curious and fascinating Proboscis Monkey along the forest-fringed Kinabatangan River. This fine area also offers us all eight of Borneo’s hornbill species and our first chance for the charismatic, yet sometimes elusive, Bornean Bristlehead, the sole member of its family. As the only monotypic bird family found in Borneo, the latter is the true mega-speciality of any Borneo birding tour.

The high points of our journey through the eastern lowlands will be our stay at the beautiful Danum Valley Conservation Area, a part of Malaysia renowned among both birders and mammal watchers. Here we will visit both primary and secondary lowland rainforest with its rich avifauna, and we should see wild Bornean Orang-utans, the kings of the Bornean jungle, moving through this superb forest.

Notable birds we will be looking for at Danum include White-fronted Falconet, the gorgeous Blue-headed Pitta, Black-crowned Pitta, the stunning Blue-banded Pitta, Bornean Banded Pitta, Bornean Black Magpie, the strange Bornean Wren-Babbler, Black-throated Wren-Babbler, Bornean Blue Flycatcher, Bornean Spiderhunter and Yellow-rumped Flowerpecker. We also have another good chance for that not-to-be-missed Bornean Bristlehead!

By the end of our travels through Sabah, we will certainly appreciate why Borneo is considered such an important area by conservationists, for its fauna and flora are remarkable indeed.

During the optional Sarawak pre-tour extension, we will initially travel southwards from Kota Kinabalu towards the Sarawak border and visit Klias Peatswamp in search of several notable localised species such as Red-crowned Barbet, Hook-billed Bulbul, Grey-breasted Babbler and Scarlet-breasted Flowerpecker. From here we will cross the border into Sarawak and start our exciting venture into the interior highlands.

Next, we explore a selection of mainly upland areas in Sarawak in which some of the most localized and little-known Bornean endemic birds can be found, along with many more widespread Bornean and Sundaic specialities, some of which are easier to find in Sarawak than elsewhere.

The Kelabit Highlands of Eastern Sarawak are home to several Bornean endemic species that are either very difficult or impossible to find elsewhere, indeed two of these, Black Oriole and Dulit Frogmouth, have only been rediscovered by ornithologists within the last decade. The spectacular Hose’s Broadbill and diminutive Bornean Frogmouth are also present in this area and very rarely seen elsewhere, while species such as Mountain Serpent Eagle, Whitehead’s Spiderhunter, Blue-banded Pitta and Pygmy White-eye (or Pygmy Ibon) are generally easier to find in Sarawak than elsewhere in their range.

We will use two bases in the highlands to access a variety of upland forest habitats. At Ba’kalalan, Dulit Frogmouth and Hose’s Broadbill are our top targets, while at Paya Maga we will be in search of the almost unknown Black Oriole at its only known reliable site.

Birdquest has operated Borneo birding tours in Malaysia since 1987.

Bulwer’s Pheasant & Bornean Peacock-Pheasant Extensions: The rare and elusive endemic Bulwer’s Pheasant and Bornean Peacock-Pheasant have taken to regularly appearing at photo hides/blinds in the state of Sabah. If you would like to try your luck with these amazing birds, you can join optional extensions prior to the Sarawak section of the tour. Please inform us at the time of booking if you would like to participate in one or both of these extensions (see further details at the end of the Detailed Itinerary). The cost will depend on the number of participants.

Sarawak-only Tour Option: It is normally possible for us to accept a few bookings for the Sarawak-only section of the tour, with or without the special Bulwer’s Pheasant & Bornean Peacock-Pheasant extension in Sabah. Please contact us if you would like to only visit these areas.

What makes the Birdquest Sabah & Sarawak tour special? Our itinerary is surely the best there is and includes four nights in Danum Valley, longer than most other tours, in order to increase the chances for some of the hardest species there, including that sought-after Bornean Bristlehead.

Why camp at Paya Maga? The problem with staying in a guesthouse at Long Tuyo is that it is a three-hour hike up to Paya Maga so it is not only a long return hike in a single day but you cannot get up to Paya Maga for the key early morning hours. If you miss Black Oriole or any other key species the only solution is to do it all again the following day! For those over 50, this is not a good option. In addition, staying at Paya Maga hugely benefits the local community who act as porters and camp crew, and also promotes the conservation of the forest.

Accommodation & Road Transport: The hotels/lodges are of good standard throughout. During the Sarawak extension, we will use simple but comfortable homestay accommodation at Long Tuyo and Ba’kalalan, while at Paya Maga we will stay for two nights in a simple but quite comfortable camp set up by our local outfitters (tents are pitched inside cabins and are available for either twin or single occupancy). Road transport is by small coach or minibus/passenger van (or 4×4 vehicles in some parts of Sarawak) and roads in Sabah are good, but bad in some areas in Sarawak.

Walking: The walking effort during our Borneo birding tour is mostly easy, occasionally moderate. The hike up to our campsite at Paya Maga during the Sarawak extension is mostly moderate grade, but a bit more demanding in places. There will be plenty of time to cover the ground.

Climate: At low altitudes, mostly hot, dry and sunny, but overcast and rainy weather is not infrequent. On Mount Kinabalu conditions are similar but temperatures range from warm to cool (even fairly cold early in the morning high on Mount Kinabalu). It is often very humid.

Bird/Mammal Photography: Opportunities during our Borneo birding tour are worthwhile.


  • Exploring the more remote corners of Borneo for some of the scarcest, most sought-after of the island's endemics
  • An exciting search for the three 'Whitehead’s' (Trogon, Broadbill and Spiderhunter) in the shadow of Mount Kinabalu - South-east Asia’s highest peak
  • The strange Fruit-hunter and Whitehead’s Spiderhunter are major targets
  • Other tricky targets include “Dayak” Hill Blue Flycatcher, “Crocker” Jungle Flycatcher and Sunda Owlet
  • Stunning Rajah Brooke’s Birdwings and Malayan Tree Nymphs deftly floating through the rich, orchid-laden forests
  • Standing in awe of huge flowering Rafflesias (if the time is right)
  • Inside the awesome chasm of Gomantong Cave, picking out the different types of swiftlet nest
  • The spectacle of emerging bat plumes and the ariel acrobatics of hunting Bat Hawks at dusk
  • Plying the serene backwaters of the Kinabatangan River – home to Bornean Ground Cuckoo and Storm’s Stork
  • Close encounters with troupes of tubby Proboscis Monkeys, and admiring those unique noses, as they loaf at the waters-edge
  • Watching with amazement at the impressive physique of a mature male Bornean Orangutan
  • The intense sights and sounds of the tropical rainforest, right on our doorstep, at the luxurious Borneo Rainforest Lodge
  • Picking up the tangled, twanging mews and squawks of a group of bizarre, monotypic Bristleheads – the epitome of Bornean birding
  • Experiencing a bewildering diversity of tropical forest birds – impressive pheasants, sultry trogons, dazzling pittas and a mesmerising diversity of babblers
  • The thrill of night-rides and walks in search of Leopard Cats, Tarsiers, Oriental Bay Owls and Large Frogmouths!
  • Threatened peat swamp forest holds the interesting Hook-billed Bulbul, Red-crowned Barbet, and with luck the stunning Scarlet-breasted Flowerpecker
  • Visit the Kelabit Highlands, where Dulit Frogmouth and Black Oriole are big targets
  • The beautiful Hose’s Broadbill and diminutive Bornean Frogmouth are regular in the hills, as is Mountain Serpent Eagle
  • The skulking Black-throated Wren-Babbler is much easier to see in Sarawak than elsewhere
  • Both Blue-banded Pitta and Bornean Banded Pitta are hit-and-miss in Sabah, but we should find both in Sarawak
  • Hoping for a dream encounter with Bulwer's Pheasant from a photo hide/blind in the Trus Madi area of Sabah
  • Watching the sought after endemic Bornean Peacock-Pheasant at another hide/blind in a little-visited part of Sabah


  • Day 1: Midday tour start at Kora Kinabalu airport. Drive to Trus Madi.
  • Day 2: Bulwer's Pheasant Hide/Blind. Overnight at Trus Madi.
  • Day 3: Bulwer's Pheasant Hide/Blind. Transfer to Gunung Alab.
  • Day 5: Gunung Alab, then return to Kota Kinabalu airport.
  • Day 1: Afternoon tour start at Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia. Drive to Beaufort.
  • Day 2: Klias Wetland Reserve, then cross into Sarawak and continue via Lawas to Long Semadoh.
  • Day 3: Drive to Ba’kalalan.
  • Day 4: Ba’kalalan area.
  • Days 5-6: Drive to Paya Maga and explore the area.
  • Day 7: Paya Maga, then drive to Kota Kinabalu.
  • Day 1: Afternoon tour start at Kota Kinabalu.
  • Day 2: Drive to Crocker Range, then on to Mount Kinabalu.
  • Days 3-5: Mount Kinabalu.
  • Day 16: Mount Kinabalu, then then drive via Gomantong Caves to Kinabatangan River at Sukau.
  • Days 7-8: Lower Kinabatangan Conservation Area.
  • Day 9: Kinabatangan River, then drive via Lahad Datu to Danum Valley.
  • Days 10-12: Danum Valley Conservation Area.
  • Day 13: Danum Valley, then drive to Lahad Datu airport for afternoon tour end.

To see a larger map, click on the square-like ‘enlarge’ icon in the upper right of the map box.

To see (or hide) the ‘map legend’, click on the icon with an arrow in the upper left of the map box.

To change to a satellite view, which is great for seeing the physical terrain (and for seeing really fine details by repetitive use of the + button), click on the square ‘map view’ icon in the lower left corner of the ‘map legend’.


Birdquest Inclusions: Our tour prices include surface transportation, accommodations, meals and entrance fees.

We also include all tipping for local guides, drivers, boatmen and accommodation/restaurant staff.

Deposit: 20% of the total tour price. Our office will let you know what deposit amount is due, in order to confirm your booking, following receipt of your online booking form.

TO BOOK THIS TOUR: Click here (you will need the tour dates)

The single supplement will not apply if you indicate on booking that you prefer to share a room and there is a room-mate of the same sex available.

This tour is priced in US Dollars. Amounts shown in other currencies are indicative.

Air Travel To & From The Tour: Our in-house IATA ticket agency will be pleased to arrange your air travel on request, or you may arrange this yourself if you prefer.


Borneo: Sabah: Day 1   Our tour begins early this afternoon at Kota Kinabalu airport in Malaysia’s Sabah province in northern Borneo. Surprisingly modern, the city was completely rebuilt after the Allied bombing in the Second World War and has grown greatly in recent decades.

(It is generally easy to incorporate Kota Kinabalu into your international tickets if you are flying with Malaysian Airlines, but if you are arranging your international flights yourself and would find it easier if we arranged your regional flights for you, we will be pleased to assist.)

This afternoon we will look for birds in the Kota Kinabalu region, where there are still some areas of tidal mudflats, wetlands and grasslands. Here we should find Malaysian Plover, while more widespread species we may well see in these habitats include Purple and Striated Herons, Javan Pond Heron, Eastern Cattle, Great, Intermediate, Little and Pacific Reef Egrets, Yellow and Cinnamon Bitterns, Wandering Whistling Duck, Black-shouldered Kite, White-browed Crake, White-breasted Waterhen, Black-backed Swamphen, Common Moorhen, Long-toed Stint, Black-winged Stilt, Oriental Pratincole, Whiskered Tern, Spotted and Zebra (or Peaceful) Doves, Lesser Coucal, Glossy Swiftlet, House Swift, Asian Palm Swift, Collared Kingfisher, Blue-throated Bee-eater, Sunda Pygmy Woodpecker, Pacific Swallow, Yellow-vented Bulbul, Pied Triller, Striated Grassbird, Yellow-bellied Prinia, Malaysian Pied Fantail, Paddyfield Pipit, White-breasted Wood Swallow, Asian Glossy Starling, Olive-backed Sunbird, Eurasian Tree Sparrow and Chestnut Munia. We may also find Watercock, Buff-banded Rail and possibly Greater Painted-snipe.

Borneo: Sabah: Day 2  This morning we will make an early start for the Crocker Range to the south of Kota Kinabalu. The Crocker Range shares many of Borneo’s montane endemics with Mount Kinabalu, but this area, lying at middle altitudes, offers better opportunities for seeing a few endemic species which are often harder to find at Kinabalu itself. In particular, we will be looking for such endemics as Bornean and Mountain Barbets, Bornean Leafbird, Bornean Bulbul, Bare-headed Laughingthrush and the uncommon Whitehead’s Spiderhunter, and we will also have a first chance to find the stunning Whitehead’s Broadbill and the tiny endemic Pygmy White-eye (or Pygmy Ibon), a species so small and drab that it can easily be overlooked. There is even a real but slim chance for the Mountain Serpent Eagle. Other species we may find here include Mountain Imperial Pigeon, Philippine Cuckoo-Dove, Temminck’s Babbler and the Sundaic-endemic Cinereous Bulbul.

Afterwards, we will drive to Kinabalu Park, situated high on the slopes of Mount Kinabalu, for a four nights stay. We should arrive in time for some initial exploration.

Borneo: Sabah: Days 3-5  The immense bare granite massif of Mount Kinabalu (4101m) towers high above the forests clothing its lower slopes. Although the summit is frequently cloaked in low cloud and mist, it is generally visible in the early morning, allowing stunning views. Mount Kinabalu is a naturalist’s paradise – an island of montane forest amongst a sea of cultivated lowlands. Millions of years of isolation have resulted in a high degree of endemism amongst the fauna and especially the flora – over half the plant species above 1000m are endemic, and there are perhaps 600 species of orchids on the mountain and no less than nine species of the extraordinary pitcher-plants.

Two-thirds of Borneo’s endemic birds are found here. With increasing altitude, there is a succession of different forest types. Above 1200m true montane forest commences; initially dominated by oaks and chestnuts with a dense ground cover, this gradually gives way to cloud forest characterized by gnarled, stunted trees (including many rhododendrons) encrusted with mosses, lichens and orchids nourished by the frequent mist and high rainfall. Finally, above the treeline, there is an open subalpine zone of bushes and dwarf shrubs below the formidable crags and gigantic rock buttresses of the summit.

Around the park headquarters, situated at 1563m (5128ft) in the lower montane zone, the climate is pleasantly temperate and there is an excellent network of roads and forest trails. Over the next few days birdwatching at Kinabalu will take on a familiar pattern, with the majority of species being fairly conspicuous and easy to see from the roads, but a minority (including some of the most sought-after) being more or less confined to the trails, where the pace is much slower, and birds rather harder to find.

A notable feature of the area is the noisy flocks that appear at first light at the roadside. These flocks typically contain endemic Chestnut-hooded and Sunda Laughingthrushes, Ashy and Hair-crested Drongos, Indigo Flycatcher, White-throated Fantail and dozens of endemic Chestnut-crested Yuhinas and Black-capped White-eyes.

We will make a particular effort to find the more retiring endemics, including the shy Crimson-headed and Red-breasted Partridges, the vivid, electric-green Whitehead’s Broadbill, the sedate and unobtrusive Whitehead’s Trogon, Fruithunter (or Black-breasted Fruithunter, once thought to be a triller but now considered to show close affinities with the thrushes), the vociferous Mountain Wren-Babbler and the diminutive Bornean Stubtail (with a song so high pitched that it is barely audible).

Additional endemics we will be looking for on Kinabalu include Bornean Swiftlet, Golden-naped Barbet, the stunning Bornean Green Magpie, Bornean Treepie, Pale-faced Bulbul, Bornean Whistling Thrush, Bornean Forktail, Everett’s Thrush (not easy), Bornean Whistler, Eyebrowed Jungle Flycatcher, Black-sided Flowerpecker and Mountain Black-eye.

Other species we may well find include Black Eagle, Blyth’s Hawk-Eagle, Little Cuckoo-Dove, Sunda Cuckoo, Crimson-winged, Checker-throated and Maroon Woodpeckers, Sunda Cuckooshrike, Grey-chinned Minivet, Ochraceous Bulbul, Black-and-crimson Oriole, Grey-throated Babbler, Blyth’s Shrike-babbler, the skulking White-browed Shortwing, Sunda Bush Warbler, Mountain Leaf and Yellow-breasted Warblers, Mountain Tailorbird, Indigo, Snowy-browed and Little Pied Flycatchers, Velvet-fronted Nuthatch and Temminck’s Sunbird.

The sulphur springs at Poring Hot Springs at the base of Kinabalu are a popular general tourist attraction. While Poring is a known site for the endemic Hose’s Broadbill, the chances of encountering this very rare bird here are exceedingly slim. It is, however, a good spot for the endemic Bornean Banded Pitta and there is a slim chance for the elusive Blue-banded Pitta.

The only mammals we are likely to encounter on Kinabalu are a variety of squirrels (including the tiny Whitehead’s Pygmy Squirrel) and tree shrews.

Borneo: Sabah: Day 6  After some early morning birding at Mount Kinabalu, we will drive southeastwards to the Lower Kinabatangan Conservation Area for a three nights stay beside the Kinabatangan River.

En route, we will visit the famous Gomantong Caves, which are surely a glory of Malaysia. This huge cave system, penetrating far inside a massive limestone outcrop, is probably the largest in Sabah and is the home of literally millions of swiftlets and bats. Leaving the bright sunshine behind, we will enter a cool world of perpetual darkness with its own very different ecosystem ranging from tiny mites to spectacular long-legged centipedes. Inside the cavernous, cathedral-sized main cave we will be able to watch Black-nest, Mossy-nest and Glossy Swiftlets, and perhaps Edible-nest Swiftlets, on their noticeably differing nests, the only really safe way to tell them apart! Ropes suspended from the roof of the cave and flimsy bamboo scaffolding have been used for a thousand years to collect the nests of Edible-nest and Black-nest Swiftlets for soup, although nowadays the nests can only be collected after the breeding season.

At dusk, clouds of bats emerge from the caves like swarms of mosquitoes and several Bat Hawks are usually in attendance to prey on them; indeed this is one of the most reliable places to see this interesting and elusive raptor. They are often accompanied by one or two Peregrine Falcons of the rather dark local race, and it is surprising how similar these two raptors can appear in flight, as the Peregrines catch bats too.

The small forest reserve surrounding the caves is rich in birds. Here we shall be hoping to see Black-throated Babbler in particular, amongst a range of species. The reserve also offers our first chance to see the splendid Bornean Orang-utan.

Borneo: Sabah: Days 7-8  While based at our riverside lodge, we will explore some of the shadier and quieter stretches of Kinabatangan and other local rivers by boat in search of the extraordinary Proboscis Monkey, which is endemic to Borneo. As well as this bizarre creature, surely one of the most unlikely simians of all, we are likely to find Silvered Langur (or Silvered Leaf Monkey) and Long-tailed (or Crab-eating) Macaque, and we also have another chance for Orang-utan.

The flood-plain forests of the Lower Kinabatangan hold a wealth of birds and we will be looking in particular for the highly localized Wrinkled Hornbill, the rare and enigmatic Storm’s Stork, the uncommon Jerdon’s Baza, the rare and retiring endemic Bornean Ground-Cuckoo (which takes both persistence and luck to see), the splendid Large Frogmouth and the endemic Dusky Munia. We will also have another chance for the strange Bornean Bristlehead here.

Amongst the other species that we may well see at the Kinabatangan are Oriental Darter, Black-crowned Night Heron, Lesser Adjutant, Brahminy Kite, White-bellied Sea Eagle, Lesser Fish Eagle, Crested Goshawk, Green Imperial Pigeon, Little and Thick-billed Green Pigeons, Common Emerald Dove, Long-tailed Parakeet, Blue-eared and Stork-billed Kingfishers, Oriental Pied Hornbill, the huge Great Slaty Woodpecker, Rufous Woodpecker, Black-and-red Broadbill, Asian Red-eyed, Black-headed, Cream-vented and Olive-winged Bulbuls, Common Iora, White-chested Babbler, Malaysian Blue Flycatcher, Blyth’s Paradise-Flycatcher, Oriental Magpie-Robin (of a distinctive, near-black form), Crimson Sunbird and Orange-bellied Flowerpecker. We also have a good chance of seeing Hooded Pitta, a characteristic species of the riverside forests, while scarcer species may include Grey-headed Fish Eagle.

Borneo: Sabah: Day 9  After a last early morning at the Kinabatangan River we will travel to the Lahad Datu region. We will spend a total of four nights at the famous Danum Valley Conservation Area. We will arrive in time for some initial exploration.

Borneo: Sabah: Days 10-12  The Danum Valley Conservation Area contains some of the most accessible untouched lowland rainforests in Sabah (and indeed in the whole of Borneo), only matched by Taman Negara National Park in West Malaysia. Gigantic trees (some reaching over 80m tall, creating the tallest canopy of any rainforest), clambering lianas, spectacular butterflies, strange-looking insects and a bewildering variety of birds are all integral features of this superbly balanced and stable environment – the end-product of millions of years of evolution. Rainforests are the richest habitat on earth and those of Southeast Asia are the richest of all. There are more tree species here than in Amazonia and this floristic wealth has a profound influence on the avifauna.

Many bird families reach their greatest diversity in rainforests such as this, with different species adapting to different modes of life whether in the sunlit canopy or on the gloomy forest floor. Our lodge is situated near the banks of the Segama River and is surrounded by forest. As dawn breaks an ethereal mist hangs over the trees, but as the sun slowly rises this starts to lift, and the chorus of broadbills, babblers, bulbuls and endemic White-crowned Shamas is soon joined by the superbly evocative bubbles and trills of Bornean Gibbons as each of the local family groups greets the new day with their song. The numerous flowering and fruiting trees around the lodge attract a good variety of birds, and in just a few minutes we can access an excellent network of trails that will lead us deep into the shade of the forest, where sound becomes an all-important means to locate birds.

Danum Valley hosts a superb selection of species, and we have an excellent chance of finding many of the local endemic specialities. These include the gorgeous Blue-headed Pitta, a bird which very much lives up to the old name for the family of ‘jewel thrush’ as it bounds over the forest floor. In contrast, the distinctive Black-crowned (or Black-and-crimson) Pitta sits calling in the deepest shadows, glowing like a hot coal. A bit harder to find are the stunning Blue-banded Pitta and Bornean Banded Pitta. With just a bit of luck we will find a Bornean Ground Babbler walking like a miniature rail over the ground, whilst its close relative, the stocky Black-throated Wren-Babbler, ascends into the trees to scold us.

Amongst other Bornean endemics that we will be concentrating on during our visit are White-fronted Falconet, Bornean Black Magpie, Bornean Blue Flycatcher, Bornean Spiderhunter and Yellow-rumped Flowerpecker.

The greatest prize here is the strange endemic Bornean Bristlehead (now elevated to its own monotypic family), and we will hope to hear its strange whistles and growls coming from the canopy and then catch sight of a party of these strawberry-headed enigmas moving through the treetops.

The most spectacular of Danum’s birds are surely the hornbills, and the raucous trumpeting of Rhinoceros Hornbills as a party flies overhead should become a familiar sound. Helmeted Hornbills are also very vocal, giving a succession of ‘toohoop’ notes culminating in a manic ‘chop-your-mother-in-law-down’ crescendo, but they are often much shyer and harder to get views of. Other hornbill species at Danum include Bushy-crested, Wreathed and Black.

Another vocal species is the Great Argus, whose call can be heard from well over a kilometre away. This largest of all the pheasants is usually difficult to see, but occasionally one of the Danum males becomes surprisingly tame, making for a better chance of seeing this improbable bird with its outrageous train of elongated wing feathers.

During our stay at Danum Valley we will also have the opportunity for several nocturnal excursions, and have an excellent chance of finding Buffy Fish Owl and Brown Wood Owl, and a pretty good chance for Barred Eagle-Owl. More difficult nightbirds include Reddish Scops Owl. We also have another chance for Large Frogmouth.

Amongst the many other species, we may well encounter here are Crested (or Oriental) Honey Buzzard, Crested Serpent Eagle, Rufous-bellied and Wallace’s Hawk-Eagles, Blue-crowned Hanging-Parrot, Violet and Plaintive Cuckoos, Raffles’s, Red-billed and Chestnut-breasted Malkohas, Greater Coucal, Brown-backed Needletail, Silver-rumped Spinetail, Grey-rumped and Whiskered Treeswifts, Diard’s, Red-naped and Scarlet-rumped Trogons, Oriental Dwarf Kingfisher, Red-bearded Bee-eater, Dollarbird, Golden-whiskered, Red-throated, Yellow-crowned, Blue-eared and Brown Barbets, and Buff-rumped, Buff-necked, Grey-capped, Grey-and-buff and Orange-backed Woodpeckers.

Passerines include Black-and-yellow, Banded and Green Broadbills, Black-winged Flycatcher-Shrike, Lesser Cuckooshrike, Large Woodshrike, Fiery and Scarlet Minivets, Green Iora, Lesser Green and Greater Green Leafbirds, Grey-bellied, Spectacled, Puff-backed, Grey-cheeked, Yellow-bellied, Hairy-backed , Streaked and Charlotte’s Bulbuls, Asian Fairy-Bluebird, Greater Racket-tailed and Bronzed Drongos, Dark-throated Oriole, Crested Jayshrike, Slender-billed Crow, Rufous-fronted, Black-capped, Short-tailed, Ferruginous, Horsfield’s, Sooty-capped, Moustached, Rufous-crowned, Scaly-crowned, Chestnut-rumped and Chestnut-winged Babblers, Striped Wren-Babbler, Bold-striped Tit-babbler (restricted to Borneo and Java), Fluffy-backed Tit-babbler, Brown Fulvetta, White-bellied Yuhina, Rufous-tailed Shama, White-crowned Forktail, Dark-necked, Ashy and Rufous-tailed Tailorbirds, Sunda Blue (or Large-billed Blue) and Verditer Flycatchers, Grey-headed Canary-Flycatcher, Black-naped Monarch, Maroon-breasted and Rufous-winged Philentomas, Spotted Fantail, Yellow-breasted Flowerpecker, Plain, Plain-throated, Red-throated, Ruby-cheeked and Purple-naped Sunbirds, Little, Spectacled and Yellow-eared Spiderhunters, and Common Hill Myna.

We should also find some of the scarcer or harder-to-see species of wider distribution, which include the secretive Chestnut-necklaced Partridge, Crested Fireback, Jambu Fruit Dove, Banded Bay Cuckoo, Square-tailed Drongo-Cuckoo, Rufous-collared, Blue-banded and Banded Kingfishers, Olive-backed Woodpecker, White-crowned Hornbill, the strange Dusky Broadbill, Black-and-white and Finsch’s Bulbuls, Chestnut-backed Scimitar-Babbler, Chestnut-naped Forktail, Rufous-chested Flycatcher, Thick-billed Spiderhunter, and Thick-billed and Yellow-vented Flowerpeckers.

We have come across the very secretive Giant Pitta at Danum on rare occasions (we hear it more often), so we can live in hope!

Many mammals inhabit Danum Valley and some of the species that we are likely to see during night excursions are Greater Mouse-Deer, Sambar Deer and Thomas’s and Red Giant Flying Squirrels. We should also see a number of the scarcer species, which include Common Giant Squirrel, Black Flying Squirrel, Colugo, Sunda Slow Loris, Bornean Pygmy Elephant, Lesser Mouse-Deer, Common Palm, Masked Palm, Banded Palm and Malay Civets, Binturong, Leopard Cat and Malay Weasel.

The reserves also have one of the largest populations of Bornean Orang-utans in Borneo and we should see these magnificent apes in their forest kingdom, a truly thrilling sight. Other regularly observed primates include Sunda Pigtail Macaque, the beautiful Maroon Langur (or Red Leaf Monkey) and Bornean Gibbon.

Borneo: Sabah: Day 13  After some final birding at Danum Valley this morning we will return to the lodge to wash and change. Afterwards, we will drive to Lahad Datu airport, where our Borneo tour ends this afternoon.

(It is generally easy to incorporate Lahad Datu into your international tickets if you are flying with Malaysian Airlines, but if you are arranging your international flights yourself and would find it easier if we arranged your regional flights for you, we will be pleased to assist.)



Borneo: Sarawak: Day 1  Our tour starts early this afternoon at Kota Kinabalu airport in Malaysia’s Sabah state in northern Borneo. From there we will transfer to the town of Beaufort for an overnight stay.

(It is generally easy to incorporate Kota Kinabalu into your international tickets if you are flying with Malaysian Airlines, but if you are arranging your international flights yourself and would find it easier if we arranged your regional flights for you, we will be pleased to assist.)

Borneo: Sarawak: Day 2  This morning we will reach the Klias Wetland Reserve near the Sarawak border by first light. The lowland peat-swamp forest here is a rare habitat nowadays in the Malaysian parts of Borneo and the protected fragment at Klias is home to several localized, habitat-specific species. We will be searching in particular for Hook-billed Bulbul, Red-crowned Barbet, Grey-breasted Babbler and Scarlet-breasted Flowerpecker.

Additional species we are likely to encounter today include the endemic Yellow-rumped Flowerpecker, Black-bellied Malkoha, Grey-rumped Treeswift, Long-tailed Parakeet, Common Hill Myna, Grey-and-buff Woodpecker, Diard’s Trogon, Oriental Dwarf Kingfisher, Glossy Swiftlet, Oriental Magpie-Robin, House Swift, Asian Palm Swift, Collared Kingfisher, Blue-throated Bee-eater, Pacific and Barn Swallows, Dark-necked Tailorbird, Ashy Tailorbird, Chestnut-rumped, Fluffy-backed and Chestnut-winged Babblers,  Yellow-vented Bulbul, Pied Triller, Malaysian Pied Fantail, White-breasted Wood Swallow, Black Hornbill,  Pink-necked Green Pigeon, Olive-winged Bulbul, Asian Glossy Starling, Olive-backed Sunbird, Eurasian Tree Sparrow Spotted and Zebra (or Peaceful) Doves, Greater Green Leafbird,  Ruby-cheeked, Copper-throated, Olive-backed and Brown-throated Sunbirds, Dusky Munia and Chestnut Munia.

Later in the day we will cross the border into Malaysia’s Sarawak province. At Lawas we will change to 4×4 vehicles for our journey into the interior, where we overnight at a guesthouse at Long Tuyo.

Borneo: Sarawak: Day 3  Today we travel along the track to the remote settlement of Ba’kalalan, situated at 975m (3200ft) in the Kelabit Highlands, close to the border with Kalimantan, where we will stay for two nights.

Stops along the way could well produce Red-bearded Bee-eater, Yellow-crowned Barbet, Dark Hawk-Cuckoo and Brown-backed Needletail among others. We should arrive in time for some initial exploration.

Borneo: Sarawak: Day 4  Large tracts of excellent submontane forest are a feature of the Ba’kalalan area and these are now accessible along recently constructed but little-used roads that span a wide altitudinal range.

The forests around and above Ba’kalalan are home to such specialities as Dulit and Bornean Frogmouths and Hose’s Broadbill and we will be concentrating on these Bornean endemics as they are either very difficult or impossible to see in other areas in Borneo that are visited by birders.

In addition, an excellent variety of other Bornean specialities occur in the area, including Bornean Banded and Blue-banded Pittas, Whitehead’s Broadbill, Whitehead’s Spiderhunter, Pygmy White-eye (or Pygmy Ibon), Bornean and Mountain Barbets, Bornean Leafbird, Bornean Bulbul, Chestnut-hooded Laughingthrush, Bornean Spiderhunter, Bornean Treepie, Chestnut-crested Yuhina, Golden-naped Barbet, Black-throated Wren-babbler and Mountain Serpent Eagle, several of which are easier to see in Sarawak than elsewhere.

In addition to the endemic frogmouths, other nightbirds present include Malaysian Eared Nightjar, Sunda Scops Owl, Bar-bellied Eagle-Owl and Brown Hawk-Owl, though a certain element of luck is required with some of these species.

Red-breasted, Crimson-headed and Ferruginous Partridges all occur but are hard to see in the impenetrable forest. There is even a slim chance of coming across the extremely rare Bulwer’s Pheasant in the hills around Ba’kalalan.

More widespread species that we are likely to encounter here include Crested Honey Buzzard, Mountain Imperial Pigeon, Thick-billed Green Pigeon, Blue-crowned Hanging Parrot, Black-bellied Malkoha, Giant Swiftlet, Orange-breasted Trogon, Banded Kingfisher, Philippine and Little Cuckoo-Doves, Golden-whiskered and Blue-eared Barbets, Banded, Olive-backed and Orange-backed Woodpeckers, Green, Banded and Black-and-yellow Broadbills, Black-thighed Falconet, Cinereous and Black-headed Bulbuls, Lesser Green Leafbird, Large Woodshrike, Sunda Cuckooshrike, Scarlet Minivet, Rufous-tailed Jungle Flycatcher, Indigo and Hill Blue Flycatchers (plus Dark-sided and Asian Brown Flycatchers at times when these migrants are present), Grey-headed Canary-flycatcher, Golden-bellied Gerygone, Rufous-fronted and Temminck’s Babblers, Black-and-crimson Oriole, Velvet-fronted Nuthatch, Ashy and Hair-crested Drongos, Crested Jay, Slender-billed Crow, Temminck’s Sunbird, Plain Flowerpecker, Little Spiderhunter and Paddyfield Pipit.

Borneo: Sarawak: Days 5-6  We will return along the road towards Long Semadoh before diverting onto a long-disused logging track to Paya Maga. From the end of the drivable track, we have a two-hour walk higher into the hills. It is around our camp at approximately 1700m (5578ft) that we expect to find the recently rediscovered endemic Black Oriole, which is a regular visitor to the area.

Being at a generally lower elevation than Ba’kalalan and with higher rainfall, the forest at Paya Maga contains a subtly different avifauna, including a higher volume of fruit-eating species. There is much overlap in species, however, so we will have second chances for some of the trickier species, such as Blue-banded Pitta and Dulit and Bornean Frogmouths.

With a bit of good fortune, we will also encounter one or more of the scarcer or shyer species of the area such as Crested Partridge, Great Argus (usually only heard), White-crowned Hornbill, the rare endemic Hose’s Broadbill, White-necked Babbler or even the monotypic Rail-Babbler.

Additional species we may expect to encounter at Paya Maga include Blyth’s Hawk-Eagle, Rufous-bellied Eagle, Crested Serpent Eagle, Common Emerald Dove, Raffles’s and Red-billed Malkohas, Banded Bay and Plaintive Cuckoos, Whiskered Treeswift, Rhinoceros, Wreathed and Helmeted Hornbills, Brown Barbet, Blue-crowned Hanging Parrot, Maroon-breasted Philentoma, Bar-winged and Black-winged Flycatcher-shrikes, Black-naped Monarch, Slender-billed Crow, Scaly-breasted, Cream-vented, Asian Red-eyed, Spectacled, Finsch’s, Yellow-bellied, Buff-vented and Streaked Bulbuls, Grey-headed and Black-capped Babblers, Bold-striped Tit-Babbler, Everett’s White-eye, White-rumped Shama, Yellow-eared Spiderhunter and Grey-breasted Spiderhunter.

Borneo: Sarawak: Day 7  After some early morning birding at Paya Maga we will descend to the road and transfer to Kota Kinabalu to join up with those arriving for the Sabah section of the tour.



Bulwer’s Pheasant: Day 1  The extension begins around midday at Kota Kinabalu airport in Malaysia’s Sabah province in northern Borneo. Transfer to the Trus Madi area for a two nights stay.

Bulwer’s Pheasant: Day 2  Today should be something extraordinary as we visit one or two hides/blinds where the rarely observed endemic Bulwer’s Pheasant regularly comes to feed. Quite often multiple individuals are present! Needless to say, encountering this amazing bird is going to be one of those ‘memories of a lifetime’!

Other species that regularly occur at the hides/blinds include the superb Crested Partridge (or Roulroul), the spectacular Great Argus and such Bornean endemics as the dazzling Bornean Banded Pitta and probably Blue-banded Pitta, Bornean Bulbul, Bornean Leafbird, Dayak Blue Flycatcher, Crocker Jungle Flycatcher, Pygmy Helaeia and Bornean Spiderhunter. Quite an amazing collection!

After dark, we will be seeking the endemic Bornean Frogmouth and the impressive Barred Eagle-Owl.

Bulwer’s Pheasant: Day 3  After another morning at one of the Bulwer’s Pheasant hides/blinds at Trus Madi we will transfer to the small town of Gung Alab for an overnight stay.

At Gunung Alab we will be concentrating on two endemic partridges; Red-breasted Partridge and the wonderful little Crimson-headed Partridge (or Bloodhead)!

Other possible endemics in this area include Bornean Swiftlet, Mountain Serpent Eagle, Golden-naped Barbet, Bornean Flowerpecker, Penan Bulbul, Bornean Treepie, Chestnut-hooded Laughingthrush, Chestnut-crested Yuhina, Fruithunter, Mountain Wren-Babbler and Mountain Black-eye. With luck we will encounter the more widespread but rare Jambu Fruit Dove.

Bulwer’s Pheasant: Day 4  After some final birding around Gunung Alab we will return to Kota Kinabalu and meet up with those arriving for the Sarawak section of the tour.



Bornean Peacock-Pheasant is also visiting a hide/blind in a remote part of Sabah but not as reliably as the Bulwer’s Pheasants at Trus Madi. You need to have two days at the hide/blind to have a good chance of success and ven then there is no certainty. If there are participants who would like to try their luck with this beautiful endemic speciality we will make the arrangements on request. The cost will depend on the number of participants. The extension will be of 4 days/3 nights.




View Report


View Report


View Report

Other tours focusing on Asian islands, excluding Indonesia, include: