The Ultimate In Birding Tours

Argentina Tours

NORTHERN ARGENTINA – The Ultimate tour from the Andes to the Chaco, the Iberá marshes & Iguazu Falls

Monday 17th October – Sunday 30th October 2022

Leader: Mark Pearman

14 Days Group Size Limit 8
Northeast Argentina Extension

Sunday 30th October – Wednesday 9th November 2022

11 Days Group Size Limit 8
Tuesday 17th October – Monday 30th October 2023

Leader: Mark Pearman

14 Days Group Size Limit 8
Northeast Argentina Extension

Monday 30th October – Thursday 9th November 2023

11 Days Group Size Limit 8


Birdquest’s Northern Argentina birding tours explore the less-visited but much more bird-rich northern half of this great birding destination. Our ultimate Northern Argentina tour provides the most comprehensive level of coverage (no other tour matches ours) and produces an extraordinary list of regional specialities as we visit a series of localities in the northern Andes of Argentina, the Chaco, Entre Rios province, the Iberá marshes, the Atlantic Forest of Parana, the Araucaria forests of the far northeast and the incomparable Iguazu Falls.

Justly famed for its enormous range of impressive scenery, Northern Argentina also offers one of South America’s greatest birding experiences. In the west the mighty, snow-capped Andean peaks tower over remote puna grasslands, thorn deserts clad in columnar cacti and flower-strewn valleys. The luxuriant ‘yungas’ cloudforests of the Andean slopes give way to the arid thorny plains and palm savanna of the ‘Chaco’ and to vast flat grasslands, the traditional home of the gaucho. If one travels still further to the east, beyond the mighty Rio Paraná, the myriad of lakes and marshes eventually give way to the tall subtropical Paraná rainforests of Misiones and the awesome Iguazú Falls.

This ever-changing scenery, comprising six major habitat types, leads to an extraordinarily rich and diverse avifauna, including some of South America’s least known species, many with a very restricted distribution. Whilst watching Tucumán Mountain-Finches in shrubby Andean gullies, Sandy Gallitos running through desert valleys, Rufous-throated Dippers bobbing about amidst the waters of rushing mountain rivers, jay-sized Giant Antshrikes in beautiful cloudforests and Strange-tailed Tyrants amidst the climax grasslands of the Iberá marshes we shall enjoy these rare and spectacular birds amongst some of the most attractive and unspoilt landscapes on the continent.

In addition to the many specialities, a wide variety of rheas, tinamous, seriemas, waterbirds, raptors, guans, parrots, cuckoos, hummingbirds, puffbirds, woodpeckers, woodcreepers, antbirds, tapaculos, tyrant-flycatchers, finches, tanagers and icterids, and an unrivalled selection of ovenbirds with evocative names (miners, earthcreepers, cinclodes, horneros, cacholotes, spinetails, canasteros, thornbirds and foliage-gleaners), ensure a bird list of a quantity and quality hard to equal.

This is a truly superb birding tour, with the most comprehensive itinerary in Northern Argentina available, providing the opportunity to see a great variety of species including numerous little-known endemics and other specialities. Magnificent scenery, good food, superb wines, comfortable accommodations and mostly excellent road conditions make travelling through Northern Argentina a wonderful and unforgettable experience. Our journey takes us through some of the least known areas of Argentina, where we can enjoy warm hospitality, good food and comfortable lodgings.

Our journey through Northwest Argentina starts at San Miguel de Tucumán, our gateway to the magnificent Andes of Tucumán, Salta and Jujuy. Here we shall explore high puna tussock grasslands and cactus deserts, as well as other Andean habitats, which have on offer some little-known endemic or near-endemic specialities, many of which are rare and little-known, including Moreno’s Ground-Dove, the macaw-like Burrowing Parrot, Wedge-tailed Hillstar, Rock and Buff-breasted Earthcreepers, Scribble-tailed, Steinbach’s and Maquis Canasteros, the striking White-browed Tapaculo, the chunky White-throated Cacholote, Sandy Gallito, Rufous-throated Dipper, Brown-backed Mockingbird, Rufous-bellied Saltator, Tucumán Mountain-Finch, Red-backed Sierra-Finch, Citron-headed and Monte Yellow-Finches, Short-tailed Finch and the striking and very localized endemic Yellow-striped Brushfinch. There will be many other great birds as well, ranging from the magnificent Andean Condor to Torrent Duck.

In the yungas cloudforests and high altitude alder forests above Salta we will be looking for such interesting species as the rare Red-faced Guan, the spectacular Lyre-tailed Nightjar, Rothschild’s Swift, Spot-breasted Thornbird, Rufous-capped Antshrike, Plumbeous Tyrant, Rusty Flowerpiercer and Fulvous-headed Brushfinch.

High altitude lakes in this region are home to Andean and Puna Flamingos, and in some years the rare Horned Coot, while Polylepis-filled gullies hold specialities such as Tawny Tit-Spinetail, Zimmer’s Tapaculo and Short-tailed Finch.

Our final Andean birding will take place in the exuberant cloudforests of Calilegua National Park where a suite of special birds includes Yungas Dove, Tucuman Amazon, Yungas Screech-Owl, White-throated Antpitta and the spectacular Giant Antshrike (the largest of all the antbirds).

During the last part of our journey through Northwest Argentina we will explore the dry Chaco woodlands of lowland Salta, a unique and bird-rich habitat, with specialities such as Black-legged Seriema, Quebracho Crested-Tinamou, Chaco Owl and Cinereous Tyrant.

During the Northeast Argentina section of the tour we head north from Buenos Aires into Entre Rios (‘between the rivers’) province. Here there will be many new birds, but we will be targeting one mega speciality in particular, the now Critically Endangered Saffron-cowled Blackbird.

As we head northwards we will stop along the way to seek out two other major specialities, the scarce Glaucous-blue Grosbeak and Ochre-breasted Pipit, as well as the localized White-naped Xenopsaris.

Eventually, we reach the wonderful but little known Iberá marshes in Corrientes province, paralleled on the continent only by the Brazilian Pantanal or Venezuelan Llanos. Here both the density and the diversity of waterbirds and raptors has to be seen to be believed and the rich local avifauna includes some rare and threatened tyrant-flycatchers, seedeaters and icterids, such as Strange-tailed Tyrant, Black-and-white Monjita, Tawny-bellied, Dark-throated and perhaps Marsh, Rufous-rumped and Chestnut Seedeaters, and the endangered Yellow Cardinal.

Next, we head for the Paraná River at Ituzaingo, home to Sharp-tailed Tyrants, Pearly-bellied Seedeater and best of all the absolutely amazing Sickle-winged Nightjar!

From here our journey takes us on to a region of rolling ‘campos’ and some riverine forest, where we will look for Mottled Piculet and the spectacular Streamer-tailed Tyrant.

Further east we enter the Paraná subtropical rainforest of the sierras of Misiones, with their impressive remnant Araucaria (monkey-puzzle) stands. This is an area with some special birds, including Vinaceous-breasted Amazon, the stunning Purple-crowned Plovercrest, Canebrake Groundcreeper, Planalto Tapaculo, Green-throated Euphonia and Chestnut-backed Tanager.

We eventually finish our travels at the awe-inspiring Iguazú Falls in the extreme northeast of Argentina. Here, against a backdrop of one of the world’s most impressive waterfalls, we will wander through magnificent humid subtropical forest in search of a host of species which reach the southern limits of their ranges in this glorious part of Argentina. Particular specialities here include the endangered Black-fronted Piping-Guan, Silky-tailed Nightjar, Ochre-collared Piculet and, with luck, Southern Bristle-Tyrant and Creamy-bellied Gnatcatcher.

Birdquest has operated Northern Argentina birding tours since 1989.

Accommodation & Road Transport: The hotels/lodges are of good or medium standard throughout (a few are at the simpler end of the scale). Road transport is by small coach or minibus (passenger van) and 4×4 vehicles. Roads are mostly good but sometimes unsurfaced and rough in some areas.

Walking: The walking effort during our Northern Argentina tour is easy for the most part, but there are some moderate grade walks (a few at higher altitudes in NW Argentina may be more demanding if you are not fit).

Climate: Rather variable. Temperatures will range from warm or hot at lower altitudes to cool or even cold at higher altitudes. Sunshine is likely to alternate with overcast conditions and we are likely to experience some rain (or even snow at higher altitudes). It will be humid in the Paraná lowlands.

Bird Photography: Opportunities during our Northern Argentina tour are quite good.


  • Experiencing an amazing journey through the Andes and the Chaco to the vast Iberá marshlands and the forests of Misiones, culminating at the stunning Iguazú Falls!
  • Tracking down Moreno's Ground Dove, Buff-breasted Earthcreeper, Scribble-tailed Canastero and White-browed Tapaculo in the puna, while Andean Condors watch us.
  • Seeking Rufous-throated Dippers, Red-tailed Comets and Yellow-striped Brushfinches in the 'yungas' below Tafí del Valle.
  • Enjoying the antics of the endemic Sandy Gallito in the 'monte' desert, not to mention endemic White-throated Cachalotes and Monte Yellow-Finches.
  • All those noisy Burrowing Parrots, as big as small macaws!
  • Impressive Elegant Crested Tinamous, enigmatic White-tipped Plantcutters and the endemic Steinbach's Canastero in the Andean wilds.
  • Rare Red-faced Guans and the spectacular Lyre-tailed Nightjar in the alder forests of the Andean foothills.
  • Tracking down Giant Coots and most likely the strange Horned Coot in the altiplano wetlands.
  • Those impressive high-altitude waterbirds, including three species of flamingo, Andean Goose and Andean Avovet.
  • Seeking Rufous-bellied Seedsnipe, Red-backed Sierra Finch and even the wonderful Diademed Sandpiper-Plover in the High Andes.
  • Localized Andean near-endemics including Wedge-tailed Hillstar, Zimmer's Tapaculo, Brown-backed Mockingbird, Citron-headed Yellow Finch and the strange Boulder (or Short-tailed) Finch.
  • The huge Giant Antshrike at Calilegua, together with the restricted-range Tucuman Amazon and Yungas Screech Owl.
  • Finding Red-legged and Black-legged Seriemas in the dry chaco brushlands.
  • A mass of Chaco specialities, including the spectacular Scimitar-billed Woodcreeper, the strange Lark-like Brushrunner, the impressive Crested Gallito and the beautiful Olive-crowned Crescentchest.
  • Finding the rare Straight-billed Reedhaunter in the Paraná Delta.
  • Visiting one of the last colonies of the beautiful but endangered Saffron-cowled Blackbird in Argentina.
  • Exploring the vast Iberá marshes and enjoying their spectacular waterbirds and Capybaras and Plkains Viscachas.
  • Watching the antics of Strange-tailed Tyrants, admiring the handsome but rare Black-and-White Monjita and tracking down the endangered Yellow Cardinal.
  • Finding rare Marsh, Rufous-rumped and Chestnut Seedeater in the Iberá, atcompletely the other end of the scale from the bold Giant Wood Rails.
  • Being privileged to watch the weird Sickle-winged Nightjar flying around at dusk.
  • Sharp-tailed Grass Tyrants and Pearly-bellied Seedeaters along the Paraná River.
  • Lekking Purple-crowned Plovercrests in Misiones, as well as Bertoni's Antbirds and other specialities.
  • Watching Vinaceous-breasted Amazons, Araucaria Tit-Spinetails and Canebrake Groundcreeper in the Araucaria forests.
  • The totally awesome experience of walking along the boardwalks perched right above the spray-filled chasms at Iguazú Falls.
  • Rare Black-fronted Piping Guans, screaming Great Dusky Swifts and many other great birds at Iguazú.


  • Day 1: Midday tour start at San Miguel de Tucumán airport. Drive to Tafí del Valle.
  • Day 2: Tafí del Valle area.
  • Day 3: Drive to Cafayate.
  • Day 4: Drive to Cachi.
  • Day 5: Drive to Salta.
  • Day 6: Drive to Lozano.
  • Day 7: Drive via Humahuaca Valley and puna lakes to La Quiaca.
  • Days 8: Exploring the La Quiaca region.
  • Day 9: Drive to Libertador General San Martin.
  • Days 10-11: Calilegua National Park. Overnights at Libertador General San Martin.
  • Day 12: Drive to Las Lajitas.
  • Day 13: Las Lajitas region.
  • Day 14: Las Lajitas, then drive to Salta airport for afternoon tour end.
  • Day 1: Flight from Salta to Buenos Aires.
  • Day 2: Paraná Delta, then drive to Gualeguaychu.
  • Day 3: Gualeguaychu, then drive to Mercedes area.
  • Day 4: Drive to Carlos Pellegrini in the Iberá marshes.
  • Day 5: Iberá marshes.
  • Day 6: Iberá marshes, then drive to Ituzaingo.
  • Day 7: Drive to Aristobulo del Valle in Misiones.
  • Day 8: Aristobulo del Valle, then drive to San Vicente.
  • Day 9: San Vicente, then drive to Iguazú.
  • Day 10: Iguazú Falls.
  • Day 11: Iguazú, followed by afternoon tour end at Iguazú airport.

To see a larger map, click on the square-like ‘enlarge’ icon in the upper right of the map box.

To see (or hide) the ‘map legend’, click on the icon with an arrow in the upper left of the map box.

To change to a satellite view, which is great for seeing the physical terrain (and for seeing really fine details by repetitive use of the + button), click on the square ‘map view’ icon in the lower left corner of the ‘map legend’.


Birdquest Inclusions: Our tour prices include surface transportation, accommodations, meals and entrance fees.

We also include all tipping for local guides, drivers and accommodation/restaurant staff.

We also include this flight Salta-Buenos Aires.

Deposit: 20% of the total tour price. Our office will let you know what deposit amount is due, in order to confirm your booking, following receipt of your online booking form.

TO BOOK THIS TOUR: Click here (you will need the tour dates)


2022: £3950, $5650, €4600, AUD7280. San Miguel de Tucumán/Salta.
Northeast Argentina Extension: £2900, $4150, €3380, AUD5350. Salta/Iguazú.
2023: provisional £4020, $5750, €4680, AUD7410. San Miguel de Tucumán/Salta.
Northeast Argentina Extension: £2970, $4250, €3460, AUD5480. Salta/Iguazú.

Single Supplement: 2022: £420, $600, €480, AUD770.
Northeast Argentina Extension: £320, $470, €380, AUD600.
Single Supplement: 2023: £420, $610, €490, AUD780.
Northeast Argentina Extension: £330, $480, €390, AUD610.

The single supplement will not apply if you indicate on booking that you prefer to share a room and there is a room-mate of the same sex available.

This tour is priced in US Dollars. Amounts shown in other currencies are indicative.

Air Travel To & From The Tour: Our in-house IATA ticket agency will be pleased to arrange your air travel on request, or you may arrange this yourself if you prefer.


Northern Argentina (Northwest): Day 1  The Northwest section of our tour begins around midday at San Miguel de Tucumán airport, from where we will drive a short distance into the Andes to Tafí del Valle for a two nights stay.

As we leave the plains behind we shall climb along the course of the Rio Los Sosa into an area of stunningly beautiful ‘yungas’ forest. We will have time for our first exploration of this area this afternoon.

Northern Argentina (Northwest): Day 2  Above Tafí Del Valle, the sun-bleached tussock grasslands, sandwiched between the impressive peaks of the Aconquija massif, provide inspiring scenery for our morning’s birding. At the Infiernillo pass, we may well see several majestic Andean Condors floating across the blue skies, passing between the jagged peaks which surround us. We shall be birding near the road at heights of up to 10,500ft (3200m), enjoying the crisp morning air and the spectacular view of the cloud tops in the valley below while watching a multitude of Andean birds. Foremost amongst these is the rare and extremely localized Tucumán Mountain-Finch, a chunky silvery and metallic chestnut creature known from only a handful of sites. With patience and a little luck, we should locate this handsome bird this morning.

Amongst the pre-puna grasslands and rugged hillsides, we may also find Ornate and Andean Tinamous, Black-chested Buzzard-Eagle, Variable Hawk, Andean Lapwing, the endemic Moreno’s Ground Dove, Black-winged Ground Dove, Andean Swift, Burrowing Owl, Andean Flicker, Slender-billed Miner, the near-endemic Buff-breasted Earthcreeper, Puna (or Cream-winged) and White-winged Cinclodes, Cordilleran and Puna Canasteros, the rare and localized Scribble-tailed Canastero, Streak-fronted Thornbird, the striking endemic White-browed Tapaculo, White-browed Chat-Tyrant, Black-billed Shrike-Tyrant, Spot-billed and Cinereous Ground Tyrants, Hellmayr’s Pipit, Plumbeous, Ash-breasted and Band-tailed Sierra Finches, and Plain-coloured Seedeater.

This afternoon we will explore the ‘yungas’ forest below Tafí del Valle. A distinctive type of cloudforest extending in a narrow belt from northern Argentina to southern Bolivia, this habitat holds a number of restricted-range species (the yungas endemics) and possesses the ethereal beauty that is so typical of Andean forests. The tall trees are festooned with orchids, bromeliads, mosses, lichens and other epiphytes through which ever-active mixed-species flocks roam, whilst a dense undergrowth of ferns and bamboo hides more retiring birds. The Rio Los Sosa plunges out of the Andes through this forest and we shall search its length for Rufous-throated Dipper (the rarest and most localized of the five species of dipper) and the spectacular Torrent Duck (likely to be found riding the rapids). These luxuriant forests are home to the striking and very localized endemic Yellow-striped Brushfinch and we shall make a concerted effort to find this attractive bird. Flowering trees and shrubs attract White-bellied Hummingbird, Sparkling Violetear and the superb Red-tailed Comet.

Other species we will hope to see here include White-collared Swift, White-barred Piculet, Golden-olive and Dot-fronted Woodpeckers, Buff-browed Foliage-gleaner, Azara’s Spinetail (here of the buff-browed race superciliosa), White-crested and Highland Elaenias, White-throated Tyrannulet, the poorly known Buff-banded Tyrannulet, Cinnamon Flycatcher, Streak-throated Bush Tyrant, Andean Slaty, Chiguanco and Rufous-bellied Thrushes, House and Mountain Wrens, Blue-and-white Swallow, Brown-capped Whitestart, Rust-and-yellow, Sayaca and Fawn-breasted Tanagers, Common Bush Tanager and Rusty-browed Warbling Finch.

Northern Argentina (Northwest): Day 3  After some more birding in the pre-puna tussock grasslands above Tafí del Valle we will descend the west slope of Aconquija, entering dramatic columnar cactus steppe where we will look for birds such as White-sided Hillstar, Scale-throated Earthcreeper, Rufous-banded Miner, D’Orbigny’s Chat-Tyrant, Patagonian Mockingbird, Mourning and Grey-hooded Sierra Finches, and the endemic Monte Yellow Finch.

We have now entered a different ecosystem, the ‘monte desert’. This inter-montane strip of desert extends up from the northern limits of Patagonia and comprises a wooded and cactus-clad desert which is not only an ecosystem unique to Argentina but also home to several endemic bird species. One of our first goals will be the large and chunky endemic White-throated Cacholote whose massive nests in the columnar cacti have to be seen to be believed. Here, and as we venture further into the desert, numerous scrub-loving birds provide a sudden contrast to the recent forest and pre-puna birding. The spectacular, macaw-like Burrowing Parrot will become a common sight and we should also encounter Southern Crested Caracara, Chimango Caracara, American Kestrel, Grey-hooded Parakeet, Picui Ground Dove, Guira Cuckoo, White-fronted and Checkered Woodpeckers, Chaco Earthcreeper, Brown-capped Tit-Spinetail, Rusty-vented Canastero, Greater Wagtail-Tyrant, White-winged Black Tyrant, Southern Martin, Golden-billed Saltator, Blue-and-yellow Tanager, Chaco and Rufous-sided Warbling Finches, and Variable Oriole.

Our ultimate goal is the elusive and poorly known Sandy Gallito, a large, cryptically-plumaged desert tapaculo which is endemic to Argentina. It behaves like a small roadrunner, dashing from the shade of one bush to another at amazing speed.

Eventually, we will reach the pleasant colonial town of Cafayate, in the heart of Argentina’s northwestern wine-growing region, where we will overnight.

Northern Argentina (Northwest): Day 4  Leaving the vineyards behind we continue through ever-changing Andean vistas and soon enter an area of humid meadows providing good opportunities for birds such as Spectacled Tyrant, Grass Wren and Long-tailed Meadowlark.

Our journey takes us on through moonscape valleys and spectacular sandstone badlands. This seemingly sterile habitat harbours many surprises and, together with several cultivated floodplains, provides us with excellent opportunities to find such birds such as Elegant Crested Tinamou, Glittering-bellied Emerald, Spot-backed Puffbird, the enigmatic and most peculiar White-tipped Plantcutter, White-bellied Tyrannulet, Southern Scrub Flycatcher, the showy Cliff Flycatcher, Tropical Kingbird, Masked Gnatcatcher and Bay-winged Cowbird. We will also endeavour to find the least known of Argentina’s endemics, Steinbach’s Canastero.

Eventually, we will reach the Andean town of Cachi, where we stay overnight.

Northern Argentina (Northwest): Day 5  After leaving the verdant oasis of Cachi behind we have a relatively short journey to the edge of the east Andean slope. First, we will ascend out of the desert strip until we reach an Andean plateau, where we will search for Least Seedsnipe and the spectacular Tawny-throated Dotterel.

Beyond here a spectacular winding and descending road, juxtaposed between 2300ft (700m) vertical cliffs and clouds floating in the valley below, provides yet more overwhelming Andean scenery as we explore a labyrinth of vegetated gullies which harbour several rare and exciting birds. The restricted-range Rock Earthcreeper should be one of the first of the Furnariidae encountered today as we make a variety of stops in search of the rare and extremely localized Maquis Canastero and Rufous-bellied Saltator.

After reaching the attractive provincial capital of Salta, where we stay overnight, we will make an afternoon trip in search of some localized grassland and scrubland species such as Darwin’s Nothura, the poorly known Huayco Tinamou, Black-and-chestnut Warbling Finch and Stripe-capped Sparrow.

Northern Argentina (Northwest): Day 6  An early departure from Salta will see us heading back to some nearby yungas to resume our cloudforest birding. Among the superb birds on offer here are Barred Forest-Falcon, Scaly-headed Parrot, Green-cheeked Parakeet, Rufous-capped Antshrike, Slaty Elaenia, Sclater’s and Rough-legged Tyrannulets, Yellow-olive Flycatcher, Dusky-capped Flycatcher, Plush-crested Jay, Black-backed Grosbeak, White-browed Brushfinch and Golden-winged Cacique. When birding activity finally begins to die down we will continue northwards for a time, heading for Argentina’s largest alder forest which reaches an altitude of around 2000m. Here we will endeavour to seek out some more localized species such as Rothschild’s Swift, Spot-breasted Thornbird, Plumbeous Tyrant, Rusty Flowerpiercer and Fulvous-headed Brushfinch. Our main targets, however, in this secluded forest will be the rare and very poorly-known Red-faced Guan and the spectacular Lyre-tailed Nightjar.

Eventually, we will reach Lozano where we will spend the night.

Northern Argentina (Northwest): Day 7  Today we will drive up the Humahuaca Valley, a region of thorn and cactus scrub, rocky ravines and terraced cultivation, onto the wide-open spaces of the altiplano, a vast dusty plain of sparse grasses and stunted shrubs interrupted here and there by low hills and rocky outcrops, and with a backdrop of Andean peaks. On a sunny day (and it is almost always sunny up here), the deep blue sky contrasts dramatically with the varied colours of the rocks and the vegetation. Birds are often abundant and species we may well encounter today include Aplomado Falcon, Mountain Caracara, Grey-breasted Seedsnipe, Mountain Parakeet, the pretty little Golden-spotted Ground Dove, Andean Hillstar, Plain-mantled Tit-Spinetail, Plain-breasted and Straight-billed Earthcreepers, Common and Puna Miners, Yellow-billed Tit-Tyrant, Andean Negrito, Black-hooded Sierra Finch, and Puna and Bright-rumped Yellow Finches.

The puna region of Argentina is dotted with a variety of lakes, which, depending upon the salinity of the water and abundance of aquatic vegetation, can be teeming with waterfowl, waders and flamingos. We should encounter numbers of the impressive Giant Coot and we also have a good chance of finding the rare Horned Coot, another very large species with a strange appendage of uncertain function drooping from the base of its bill.

We will also concentrate on the flamingos which should be numerous if water levels are suitable. All three Andean species occur and, although Chilean is usually the most abundant, both Puna (or James’s) and Andean are often present in good numbers.

Many other species of waterbirds occur in large numbers, including not only resident species such as Silvery Grebe, Andean Goose, Crested Duck, Speckled, Cinnamon and Puna Teals, Andean Coot, Andean Avocet, Puna Plover and Andean Gull but also migrant waders from North America including Lesser Yellowlegs, Baird’s Sandpiper and Wilson’s Phalarope. We will also keep a watchful eye out for Puna Rhea, a rare and local subspecies of the Lesser Rhea. We should spot at least one group of these wary and remarkably well-camouflaged birds before they run off over a ridge or into a gully.

Eventually, we will reach the town of La Quiaca, situated on the Bolivian border, where we will spend two nights.

Northern Argentina (Northwest): Day 8  Today we will make a concerted effort to observe some of the highest altitude species of the Andes. Leaving La Quiaca and the puna desert behind, the road winds up over a 14,800ft (4500m) pass. Roads at this altitude are few and far between in the Andes and we will be taking full advantage of this rare opportunity to explore some high tussock grasslands and scree slopes. A mega-speciality here is the poorly-known Red-backed Sierra Finch, which we should find foraging among the cushion-plants, and we also have a good chance of coming across two classic high altitude species, Puna Tinamou and Rufous-bellied Seedsnipe. There is even a fair chance of finding the lovely Diademed Sandpiper-Plover.

Providing time and road conditions permit (this is a high altitude road that is not always in good condition), we will round off the day by visiting a Polylepis-filled gulley to look for Tawny Tit-Spinetail, Zimmer’s Tapaculo, Rufous-webbed Bush Tyrant, Andean Swallow and the localized Boulder (or Short-tailed) Finch. We may even be able to reach an area where Bolivian Warbling Finch can sometimes be found.

Northern Argentina (Northwest): Day 9  Before we leave the La Quiaca region, we will search for several specialities in the Yavi area, including Bare-faced Ground Dove, the superb Wedge-tailed Hillstar (known only from a handful of localities in Bolivia and Argentina), Brown-backed Mockingbird and the localized Citron-headed Yellow Finch.

Heading back down the Humahuaca Valley, recently declared a UNESCO World Heritage site, we may make a few stops for any outstanding puna or other species en route to Libertador General San Martin where we shall be based for three nights. We may arrive in time for some foothill forest birding in the late afternoon.

Northern Argentina (Northwest): Days 10-11  Calilegua National Park encompasses some 170,000 acres (70,000 hectares) of the highest forested mountain chain in Argentina. The park extends from the plains through subtropical evergreen ‘yungas’ forest to temperate mossy forest with alder and Podocarpus woodland. Some of the special birds of the area which will be high on our list of priorities are Yungas Dove, Tucuman (or Alder) Amazon, White-throated Antpitta and the spectacular Giant Antshrike (the largest of all the antbirds).

Other species we should encounter include American Swallow-tailed and Plumbeous Kites, Dusky-legged Guan, Band-tailed and Pale-vented Pigeons, Golden-collared Macaw, Mitred Parakeet, Squirrel Cuckoo, Planalto Hermit, Speckled Hummingbird, the diminutive Slender-tailed Woodstar (Argentina’s smallest bird), Sick’s Swift, Blue-crowned Trogon, Smoky-brown Woodpecker, Sooty-fronted and Ochre-cheeked Spinetails, the poorly-known Andean form of the Sharp-tailed Streamcreeper, Black-banded Woodcreeper, Black-capped Antwren, Mottle-cheeked Tyrannulet, Euler’s, Streaked and Piratic Flycatchers, Smoke-coloured Pewee, Green-backed and Crested Becards, Spotted Nightingale-Thrush, Glossy-black Thrush, Rufous-browed Peppershrike, Crested Oropendola, Tropical Parula, and Two-banded, Pale-legged and Golden-crowned Warblers.

With a little luck, we will see (as well as hear) the elusive White-throated Quail-Dove. There is also a chance of seeing one of the rarer raptors such as Black-and-chestnut Eagle, Solitary Eagle, Ornate Hawk-Eagle or Black-and-white Hawk-Eagle.

After dusk, we have a good chance of finding the restricted-range Yungas (or Hoy’s) Screech Owl and the widespread Rufous Nightjar.

Northern Argentina (Northwest): Day 12  Today, as we head towards the dry Chaco region and gradually leave the mountains behind, we will explore an area of upland xerophytic Chaco woodlands which will give us our first taste of Chaco birding. Here we will be concentrating on finding Red-legged Seriema and its rarer and shyer cousin, the Black-legged Seriema, but we shall also encounter some of the many other species typical of this new habitat. The enigmatic Black-legged Seriema is not uncommon here, but it is a very secretive bird, foraging through the densest bush. We may well hear its haunting raucous cries, but we will need a bit of good fortune if we are to spot one. We may also encounter a Great Black Hawk or two.

Eventually, we will pass to the east of Salta and then head towards the town of Las Lajitas for a two nights stay.

Northern Argentina (Northwest): Day 13  Incoming Atlantic rain clouds are convected straight into the Andean yungas forest, leaving the entire northwestern plain of Argentina as one of the driest areas of southern South America. This is the unique ‘dry Chaco’, a vast low-lying expanse of dense thorny woodlands with a huge diversity of cacti that extends from southern Bolivia and western Paraguay to central Argentina, and which has a very distinctive avifauna. As the sun rises the bushes become alive with finches and tyrant-flycatchers, whilst the more furtive ovenbirds disclose their presence with staccato trills or ringing whistles. High on our list of priorities will be the poorly known and striking Olive-crowned Crescent-chest (now placed in its own family rather than amongst the tapaculos).

Amongst the multitude of other species we could well encounter in the chaco are Tataupa and Brushland Tinamous, White-tailed Kite, Roadside, Savanna and Harris’s Hawks, Aplomado Falcon, the noisy Chaco Chachalaca, Picazuro and Spot-winged Pigeons, White-tipped Dove, Blue-crowned and Monk Parakeets, Turquoise-fronted Amazon, the unobtrusive Ash-coloured Cuckoo, Dark-billed and Striped Cuckoos, Smooth-billed Ani, Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl, Tropical Screech Owl, Nacunda Nighthawk, the exquisite Blue-tufted Starthroat, Cream-backed Woodpecker, Green-barred Flicker, Narrow-billed Woodcreeper, Great Rufous and Scimitar-billed Woodcreepers (two of South America’s most impressive woodcreepers), the extraordinary Red-billed Scythebill, Crested Hornero, Pale-breasted and Stripe-crowned Spinetails, Rufous-fronted (or Common) and Little Thornbirds, Lark-like Brushrunner, the raucous Brown Cacholote (often on its huge stick nest), Great and Variable Antshrikes, the localized Stripe-backed Antbird, the remarkable Crested Gallito (a giant tapaculo), Pearly-vented Tody-Tyrant, Suiriri, Bran-coloured, Fork-tailed and Crowned Slaty Flycatchers, Small-billed Elaenia, Tawny-crowned Pygmy Tyrant, the showy White Monjita, Cinereous and Cattle Tyrants, Rufous Casiornis, Creamy-bellied Thrush, Brown-chested Martin, Masked Yellowthroat, Red-crested Cardinal, the aptly named Many-coloured Chaco Finch, Red Pileated (or Red-crested), Black-crested and Saffron Finches, Black-capped Warbling Finch, Ultramarine Grosbeak, Solitary Cacique, Screaming Cowbird and White-browed Blackbird.

We will also endeavour to seek out the large and rare Quebracho Crested Tinamou. At dusk, another spectacle takes over this thriving bird community as Little Nightjars and spectacular Scissor-tailed Nightjars take to the wing for their first hunting session of the night, while Common (or Grey) Potoos wail from the woodland edge. The poorly-known Chaco Owl will also figure on our list of priorities.

Northern Argentina (Northwest): Day 14  After some final birding in the Chaco we will return to Salta, where the Northwest Argentina section of our tour ends this afternoon.

(Those taking the Northeast Argentina extension will take a flight to Buenos Aires.)



Northern Argentina (Northeast): Day 1  The Northeast Argentina section of our tour begins this evening at Buenos Aires, where we will overnight.

Northern Argentina (Northeast): Day 2  A short pre-dawn drive across the uninhabited Paraná Delta over two giant arms of the Paraná River finds us at the northern edge of the delta where it meets the espinal woodland in the province of Entre Rios. This fascinating mix of marsh and parkland woods holds a very high species diversity.

Here we will focus on the reclusive and highly sought-after Straight-billed Reedhaunter. With good luck, we will also encounter the awesome Spotted Rail. This is one of the few places in South America where the White-naped Xenopsaris is actually a common species in the southern spring and summer before it migrates north. Southern Screamers are conspicuous here.

Further on we will enter a labyrinth of internal farm tracks which cross a variety of marshes and grasslands and pay special attention to finding Bearded Tachuri, Marsh, Tawny-bellied and Dark-throated Seedeaters, and our prime target of the day, the declining and endangered Saffron-cowled Blackbird. This stunning icterid is now critically endangered in Argentina due to a number of factors, not least an explosion in the numbers of parasitizing Shiny Cowbirds profiting from a change of cattle farming methods with the use of feedlots. So rare is this colonial breeder these days, that Argentina’s BirdLife partner has taken a last-ditch measure of providing in situ human guardians at each colony to control parasitism and other disturbance. We will have a privileged opportunity to visit one of these active colonies this afternoon.

Afterwards, we continue to Gualeguaychu for an overnight stay.

Northern Argentina (Northeast): Day 3  After leaving the cheerful carnival town of Gualeguaychu (pronounced Why-li-why-chu), we will visit some nearby riverine woodlands in our quest of the diminutive and poorly known Glaucous-blue Grosbeak.

Once under the belt, we have a fair drive of up to six hours on a decent tarred road to reach the heart of Corrientes province and the gateway to the remarkable Esteros del Iberá, a vast marsh system the size of Wales.

We should arrive in the Mercedes area, where we will overnight, with time to seek out South America’s rarest species of Anthus, the poorly known Ochre-breasted Pipit.

Northern Argentina (Northeast): Day 4  This morning we head for Carlos Pellegrini for a two nights stay at a comfortable lodge

As soon as we leave the city of Mercedes we will be travelling through lush, pleasant countryside which becomes progressively wetter as we head northeastwards. Raptors are very much a feature of this open country and amongst the species which we may well see are Lesser Yellow-headed Vulture and Long-winged and Cinereous Harriers. Roadside pools are lined with herons, ibises and storks (including Striated Heron, Bare-faced and White-faced Ibises, Wood and Maguari Storks, and sometimes the stately Jabiru) as well as the aptly named Southern Screamer. Amongst the many other species which we are likely to encounter today are Brazilian Duck, Wattled Jacana, Large-billed Tern, the huge Ringed Kingfisher and Amazon Kingfisher.

We will have our first opportunity to enjoy the Iberá marshes and look for its specialities this afternoon.

Northern Argentina (Northeast): Day 5  The province of Corrientes, wedged between the Paraná river, Paraguay and Brazil, is host to the largest wetland in Argentina and third largest in South America. The Iberá marshes (Iberá meaning ‘brilliant waters’ in the indigenous Guarani tongue) are an extensive mosaic of lazy rivers, large but shallow inter-connected lake systems with floating beds of water hyacinth, reed beds, rush beds, palm groves, xerophytic scrub, savanna and gallery woodland. The whole area has limited access, its best protection, but our base lies right in the centre of this complex ecosystem which covers an area the size of Wales. Traditional cattle ranching on higher ground is the mainstay of the gauchos who live here, comparatively undisturbed by modern 21st-century life.

Iberá is the last stronghold of the exquisite Strange-tailed Tyrant, a rare flycatcher of humid savanna and one of the relatively few sites for the localized and elegant Black-and-white Monjita. The icterid family is very well represented here and its members are among the most obvious inhabitants of the wetlands. Pride of place must go to the striking Scarlet-headed Blackbird, while Unicoloured, Yellow-winged and Chestnut-capped Blackbirds and Brown-and-yellow and Yellow-rumped Marshbirds complete the cast of new species. Another highly successful group of Iberá’s inhabitants are the Sporophila seedeaters, amongst which we can hope for Rusty-collared, Double-collared, Tawny-bellied, Dark-throated, and the rarer Marsh, Rufous-rumped and Chestnut.

Some parts of the marsh are alive with Limpkins and Snail Kites due to the abundance of apple snails, whilst Giant Wood-Rails strut across the roads and often feed in the open, unlike their secretive relatives. Firewood-gatherers, Chotoy Spinetails and Greater Thornbirds construct their unlikely nests in isolated clumps of trees, whilst in grazed areas, we will check for Correndera and Yellowish Pipits. We will also make a concerted effort to find the rare and endangered Yellow Cardinal.

Other new birds which we should find here include the stately Greater Rhea, Red-winged Tinamou, Spotted Nothura, Rufescent Tiger Heron, the impressive Plumbeous Ibis, Black-bellied Whistling Duck, South American Snipe, Ruddy Ground Dove, Campo Flicker, Little Woodpecker (uncommon), Yellow-chinned Spinetail, Large Elaenia, Warbling and Crested Doraditos, Vermilion Flycatcher, Black-backed Water Tyrant, White-headed Marsh Tyrant, Yellow-browed Tyrant, Chalk-browed Mockingbird, Grey-breasted Martin, Black-capped Donacobius, White-rimmed Warbler, Greyish and Green-winged Saltators, Yellow-billed Cardinal, Grassland Sparrow, Long-tailed Reed Finch, Grassland Yellow Finch, and Wedge-tailed and Lesser Grass Finches.

Northern Argentina (Northeast): Day 6  After some final birding in the Iberá region we head north to Ituzaingo for an overnight stay.

The southern shores of the Paraná River, facing Paraguay, will be our final destination. The stunning Sharp-tailed Grass Tyrant is fairly common here and another speciality is Pearly-bellied Seedeater. We will be in pole position at dusk to find the area’s mega-speciality. This area holds one of the highest global densities (around 30 pairs) of the totally bizarre Sickle-winged Nightjar. Depending upon road conditions, we hope to obtain point-blank views of this remarkable bird, the male of which lacks secondaries, thus forming an outrageous wing shape in flight.

Northern Argentina (Northeast): Day 7  Today we enter the characteristic rolling ‘campos’ habitat of the Misiones border area. First, we visit a swathe of gallery forest along the Uruguay River, bordering Brazil. Here, our number one target is the range-restricted and highly distinctive Mottled Piculet. We will likely bump into a few Atlantic Forest species at the southern edge of their range.

Nearby campo grasslands comprise rolling hills interspersed with forest islands and marshes. Here we will home in on South America’s largest flycatcher species, the Streamer-tailed Tyrant which frequently performs an astonishing synchronized wing-raising display, and, with some perseverance and a bit of luck, White-tailed Goldenthroat.

Afterwards, we head for Aristobulo del Valle, situated in the southwest of Misiones province, where we will overnight. Here we enter the verdant evergreen Paraná forest and begin to enjoy its outstanding avifauna.

Northern Argentina (Northeast): Day 8  While scanning an impressive waterfall at dawn, we may find roosting Great Dusky and White-collared Swifts, and perhaps the localized and poorly known Sooty Swift. The dense bamboo understorey is host to a multitude of antbirds and tyrant-flycatchers, although many of these shy denizens take a little patience to observe well. This morning we will concentrate on some of the more skulking species such as Spot-backed Antshrike, Bertoni’s Antbird, White-shouldered Fire-eye, Rufous Gnateater, Drab-breasted Bamboo Tyrant, Ochre-faced Tody-Flycatcher and, with luck, the highly prized Variegated Antpitta.

We will undoubtedly find more showy species such as Surucua Trogon, Chestnut-eared Aracari, Black-tailed and Black-crowned Tityras, and Reddish-bellied Parakeet, but we will also focus on seeking out the poorly known Green-throated (or Green-chinned) Euphonia and a regular lek of the stunning Purple-crowned Plovercrest.

When the activity dies down, and the din of countless cicadas takes over, we shall move on and drive to the town of San Vicente for an overnight stay.

This afternoon we can explore the surroundings of San Vicente, hoping to find such species as Green-billed Toucan, the spectacular Large-tailed Antshrike, Dusky-tailed Antbird, Long-tailed Tyrant and Sibilant Sirystes. With luck, we will hear the enigmatic Spotted Bamboowren or the elusive Speckle-breasted Antpitta, two of the toughest bamboo specialists, but seeing either of these mega-skulkers must be considered seriously fortunate.

Northern Argentina (Northeast): Day 9  This morning we will visit the picturesque Araucaria forest belt in the Sierra de Misiones, a chain of mountains (reaching up to 3300ft or 1000m altitude) running through eastern Misiones. As we enter the impressive stands of monkey puzzle (Araucaria angustifolia) which completely dominate the skyline, we will endeavour to seek out several specialities. The threatened Vinaceous-breasted Amazon still survives here in some numbers, Araucaria Tit-Spinetails occupy the highest Araucaria ‘pom-poms’ (we will hope to lure them down for close-up views), the dense Merostachys bamboo understorey is home to one of the least known of all furnariids, the wonderfully named Canebrake Groundcreeper (we will be making a special effort to secure this chunky skulker) and the stunning Chestnut-backed Tanager may put in an appearance.

Afterwards, we will drive the relatively short distance to Iguazú for a two nights stay.

Upon arrival, we will visit some hummingbird feeders which often feature such gems as Scale-throated and Planalto Hermits, the stunning Black Jacobin, Black-throated Mango, Violet-capped Woodnymph, Gilded Sapphire (or Gilded Hummingbird), and Glittering-bellied and Versicoloured Emeralds. We will also have time for a first visit to the amazing falls.

Northern Argentina (Northeast): Day 10  Iguazú Falls is one of the wonders of the natural world and, in the eyes of many, surpass in grandeur both the Niagara Falls (which are tiny in comparison) and the Victoria Falls. This spectacular place is surrounded by luxuriant humid subtropical rainforest. An extensive network of boardwalks allows stunning views of the falls themselves, and several trails and dirt tracks in the wider area permit easy access to the forest. Iguazú National Park (250 square miles or 660 square kilometres) was created in 1909 and contains one of the most significant tracts of unspoiled subtropical forest in the northeast of Argentina. These forests were formerly connected to the Atlantic forests of southeastern Brazil, a tract of humid tropical and subtropical forests long isolated from the forests of the Amazon basin and possessing an exceptionally high degree of endemism. Indeed, about 130 species of birds are confined to this narrow strip of forest, but extensive deforestation throughout the coastal lowlands and hill ranges of southeastern Brazil has brought many of them close to extinction.

During our stay in this superb area, we will observe a great variety of new species, for the park’s impressive bird list includes numerous species which, in Argentina, occur only in the northern sector of Misiones province. Several local specialities are much easier to find here than further north. This is particularly the case with the rare Black-fronted Piping Guan, a Red Data Book species which has now been almost exterminated in Brazil. Another prime target is Red-ruffed Fruitcrow, but we will need some luck to see this one. Enormous gatherings of Great Dusky Swifts sweep by in the spray-filled gorge while others can be seen clinging onto the cliffs next to, or even behind, the curtains of falling water. In contrast, when water levels permit, Black-collared Swallows rest on protruding rocks amidst the quieter reaches of the river above the falls.

Other birds we could well encounter include Green Ibis, Slaty-breasted Wood Rail, Blackish Rail, Purple Gallinule, Pileated Parrot, White-eyed Parakeet, Blue-winged Parrotlet, Greater Ani, Black-throated Trogon, Green Kingfisher, Rufous-capped Motmot, Green-billed Toucan, Toco Toucan (the largest of all the toucans), Ochre-collared Piculet, Yellow-fronted, Blond-crested, Lineated and Robust Woodpeckers, Olivaceous, Plain-winged, Planalto, Lesser and White-throated Woodcreepers, Ochre-breasted, Buff-fronted and White-eyed Foliage-gleaners, the impressive Tufted Antshrike, Rufous-winged Antwren, Plain Antvireo, Short-tailed Antthrush, Sepia-capped, Grey-hooded, Boat-billed, Social and Three-striped Flycatchers, Southern Beardless Tyrannulet, Grey and Greenish Elaenias, Eared Pygmy Tyrant, White-throated Spadebill, Tropical Pewee, Southern Antpipit, White-winged Swallow, Pale-breasted and White-necked Thrushes, Rufous-crowned Greenlet, Riverbank (or Riverside) Warbler, Bananaquit, Chestnut-vented Conebill, Swallow Tanager, Magpie, Chestnut-headed, Ruby-crowned, White-lined, Chestnut-headed, Guira and Green-headed Tanagers, Red-crowned Ant Tanager, Purple-throated, Violaceous and Chestnut-bellied Euphonias, Blue-naped Chlorophonia, Blue Dacnis, Red-rumped Cacique, Chopi Blackbird, Giant Cowbird and Lesser Seed Finch.

In the evening we will go out and look for two special nightbirds, Silky-tailed Nightjar and Long-tailed Potoo.

We should also see one or more of the less common or at least more elusive birds of the area, which include the restricted-range Southern Bristle Tyrant, Planalto Tapaculo and Creamy-bellied Gnatcatcher, as well as Solitary and Brown Tinamous, Rusty-breasted Nunlet, Spot-billed Toucanet, Black-billed Scythebill, Streak-capped Antwren and Bay-ringed Tyrannulet.

Mammals are, in general, inconspicuous but we should see Azara’s Agouti and perhaps Tufted Capuchin, while marauding bands of South American Coatis wander along the trails near the falls.

Northern Argentina (Northeast): Day 11  After some final birding at Iguazú the Northeast Argentina section of our tour will end this afternoon at Iguazú airport.


by Mark Pearman

View Report


by Mark Pearman

View Report

Other 'Southern Cone' of South America birding tours by Birdquest include: