The Ultimate In Birding Tours

North/Central America & The Caribbean

CUBA – The endemic-rich island that likes to be different

Friday 14th February – Tuesday 25th February 2025

Leaders: John McLoughlin and skilled local bird guides

12 Days Group Size Limit 8


Birdquest’s Cuba birding tours explore the largest and ornithologically richest of the Caribbean islands. Our Cuba birding tour provides comprehensive coverage of this fascinating country and produces a host of Caribbean specialities and Cuban endemics, including such delights as Blue-headed, Key West and Grey-fronted Quail-Doves, Cuban Tody, Fernandina’s Flicker, Cuban Trogon, Zapata Wren and the amazing Bee Hummingbird, the world’s smallest bird.

Five hundred years ago, Christopher Columbus made his first landfall in the New World on an island that he described as “the most beautiful that eyes have ever seen”.

The largest island to be found in the warm waters of the Caribbean Sea, Cuba is a country full of history. Following Columbus’s historic transatlantic voyage, the island soon became the pearl in the crown of the Spanish Empire in the Americas. A country with nearly five centuries of colonial history, Cuba attracted the attention of the world once again in the second half of the 20th century during the revolution that made Fidel Castro famous and Che Guevara a legend, and even now it bucks the trend of history by remaining an isolated bastion of Communism.

Nevertheless, the modern, post-revolutionary Cuba seems an age away as one drives through sleepy collonaded towns where horses are tethered outside bars with dark cavernous interiors in which their straw-hatted riders are drinking strong rum and chewing fat cigars, machetes tucked into belts, or as one watches the battered Buicks or gleaming Chevrolets of the forties and fifties travelling along roads that bisect a green sea of sugar cane. Only the occasional hoarding exhorting the people to increase productivity or extolling the triumphs of the last decades reminds one of recent history. Cuba remains the quintessential tropical island, with long palm-fringed beaches, azure seas and dense forests with cool inviting pools and waterfalls.

For the birdwatcher, Cuba has many additional attractions. Until comparatively recently, Cuba had been little visited by outside ornithologists since the late 1940s. The island has an exciting avifauna, with no fewer than 28 endemics and one near-endemic (about half of which are considered endangered), and many other species with restricted Caribbean ranges. In common with many island avifaunas, Cuba also has many distinctive races of mainland species that add further interest and, as a result of its strategic location between North and South America, is an important migration stopover or wintering area for many North American birds. This is a rather easy tour that provides a great opportunity to see Cuba’s excellent selection of endemics as well as many other Caribbean species. The friendly, easy-going atmosphere and unique feel to the country are a real bonus. During our travels through the island, we shall visit all the major habitats and will have a good chance of encountering all but two of the endemic species, as well as many other exciting birds.

With the long debate about the affinities of Yellow-headed and Oriente Warblers being finally settled with their placement in a new endemic bird family, the Cuban Warblers or Teretristridae, Cuba has become a key destination for anyone interested in seeing all the world’s bird families.

Our Cuba birding tour starts at the city of Havana, but from there we immediately head to the west.

Our exploration of this enigmatic island, during which we have an excellent chance of seeing 26 of the island’s 28 endemics (only the ultra-rare and seldom-seen Cuban Kite and Zapata Rail being excluded), begins in the lush forests of westernmost Cuba. Here we will encounter our first endemics, including the lovely little Cuban Tody, the beautiful Cuban Trogon, Cuban Green Woodpecker, Cuban Vireo, Yellow-headed Warbler, Cuban Blackbird, Cuban Oriole and in particular the localized Cuban Solitaire and very probably the rare Cuban Grassquit. Other specialities here include Cuban Emerald, West Indian Woodpecker, Crescent-eyed (or Cuban) Pewee, La Sagra’s Flycatcher, Olive-capped Warbler and Cuban Bullfinch.

Next, we explore the east-central part of the island where Afro-Caribbean influences are at their strongest (the famous dance rhythms of the rumba and conga were born here) and where the ghosts of buccaneers and pirates seem to haunt the hidden bays. We will begin by exploring an area of forested sierras where our prime targets will be the endangered endemic Cuban Palm Crow and endemic Giant Kingbird, whilst colour will be added by gaudy Cuban Amazons and endemic Cuban Parakeets. Other specialities include Great Lizard Cuckoo, Cuban Martin and Cuban Crow.

We will then visit the northern cays (coral islands) where sorties from our luxurious resort at Cayo Coco will bring us face to face with endemic specialities such as Cuban Black-Hawk, the exquisite Cuban Gnatcatcher, the noisy Oriente Warbler and the rare Zapata Sparrow. West Indian Whistling Duck, Key West Quail-Dove, Bahama Mockingbird and Thick-billed Vireo add to the area’s attractions.

Eventually, we will make our way back to the west to enjoy an extended stay in the celebrated Cienaga de Zapata, home to an exciting array of birds including some little known and rarely observed endemics. Here we will feast our eyes on superb Bare-legged Owls (or Cuban Screech-Owls) and gorgeous Fernandina’s Flickers, and also seek out other endemics such as the rare Gundlach’s Hawk, the magical Blue-headed Quail-Dove, Gray-fronted Quail-Dove, Cuban Pygmy-Owl, Cuban Nightjar, the minuscule Bee Hummingbird (the world’s smallest bird), Red-shouldered Blackbird and the very rare Zapata Wren. Stygian Owl is another notable speciality.

On our way to the airport, we will pay a short visit to La Habana (known to English speakers as Havana), a capital city of decaying elegance that exudes memories of the days of the Spanish Empire and the boisterous but decadent years that preceded the revolution.

All in all, there can be few more enjoyable Caribbean birding journeys than travelling through Cuba at the best season to see the island’s many specialities.

Birdquest has operated Cuba birding tours since 1993

Important: the Birdquest group size limit is lower than for most Cuba birding tours. There is a lot of forest birding in Cuba and so a smaller group size limit is a significant benefit to participants.

Accommodation & Road Transport: The hotels are of good or medium standard throughout. Road transport is by small coach and roads are reasonably good.

Walking: The walking effort during our Cuba birding tour is easy throughout.

Climate: Mostly hot, dry and sunny, but it is sometimes overcast and it may rain at times. It is often humid.

Bird Photography: Opportunities during our Cuba birding tour are worthwhile.


  • Experiencing Cuba’s unique lifestyle and culture, as well as its wonderful birdlife
  • Finding the world’s smallest bird, the adorable Bee Hummingbird
  • Coming face to face with the magnificent little Cuban Tody
  • Seeing the incredible and colourful Cuban Trogon
  • Getting to grips with restrictred-range Carribean bird families, including Cuban Warblers and Spindalises
  • Seeing Cuba’s fantastic quail-doves, including Blue-headed Quail Dove, surely one of the world’s best pigeons!
  • Birding the famous Zapata Swamps, surrounding the equally famous Bay of Pigs
  • Seeing the endemic Bare-legged Owl peeping out from its nest hole
  • Finding the magnificent Stygian Owl, perhaps even at a day roost
  • Being serenaded by rarities such as Zapata Wren and Cuban Solitaire
  • Enjoying three stunning regionally-endemic woodpeckers
  • Seeing an excellent variety of North American Wood Warblers, in their marvellous breeding finery just before they head north to breed
  • Having a great chance of seeing all of Cuba’s gettable endemic specialities


  • Day 1: Evening tour start at Havana.
  • Day 2: Drive to San Diego de los Banos.
  • Day 3: La Guira National Park and San Diego de los Banos area, then drive to Havana region.
  • Day 4: Drive to Camagüey.
  • Day 5: Sierra de Najasa. Overnight at Camagüey.
  • Day 6: Drive to Cayo Coco.
  • Day 7: Cayo Coco.
  • Day 8: Cayo Coco, then drive to Playa Giron.
  • Days 9-11: Exploring the Cienaga de Zapata National Park region. Overnights at Playa Giron.
  • Day 12: Cienaga de Zapata, then drive to Havana airport for early evening tour end.

To see a larger map, click on the square-like ‘enlarge’ icon in the upper right of the map box.

To see (or hide) the ‘map legend’, click on the icon with an arrow in the upper left of the map box.

To change to a satellite view, which is great for seeing the physical terrain (and for seeing really fine details by repetitive use of the + button), click on the square ‘map view’ icon in the lower left corner of the ‘map legend’.


Birdquest Inclusions: Our tour prices include surface transportation, accommodations, meals and entrance fees.

We also include all tipping for local guides, drivers and accommodation/restaurant staff.

Deposit: 20% of the total tour price. Our office will let you know what deposit amount is due, in order to confirm your booking, following receipt of your online booking form.

TO BOOK THIS TOUR: Click here (you will need the tour dates)

2025: confirmed £3390, $4350, €3950, AUD6560. Havana/Havana.

Single Supplement: 2025: £240, $320, €290, AUD480.

The single supplement will not apply if you indicate on booking that you prefer to share a room and there is a room-mate of the same sex available.

This tour is priced in US Dollars. Amounts shown in other currencies are indicative.

Air Travel To & From The Tour: Our in-house IATA ticket agency will be pleased to arrange your air travel on request, or you may arrange this yourself if you prefer.


Cuba: Day 1  Our tour begins this evening at Havana (or La Habana), where we will spend the night. The older parts of the charismatic city of Havana have a particular charm, with an air of faded elegance brought about by decades of neglect!

Airport transfers will be provided.

Cuba: Day 2  This morning we will head west to San Diego de los Banos for an overnight stay. We will arrive in time for some initial exploration.

While based at San Diego de los Banos we will explore La Güira National Park. The steep limestone hills and crags covered in lush forest provide an excellent introduction to Cuban birds. A particular speciality that we will be looking for here is the endemic Cuban Solitaire, an inconspicuous species with a rather nondescript plumage. It is, however, a renowned songster with an amazing jangling but musical song.

The forest here is mixed, with stands of pine occurring amongst the tropical broadleaf trees. The restricted-range Olive-capped Warbler (occurring only in Cuba and the Bahamas) also occurs here and is particularly associated with these pockets of conifers. To see these birds picking insects off pine needles is a scene reminiscent of more northerly climes and seems a little incongruous south of the Tropic of Cancer.

One of the most delightful inhabitants of the forest is the endemic Cuban Tody. A member of a small family confined entirely to the Greater Antilles, it is distantly related to both motmots and kingfishers and indeed bears a superficial resemblance to them: it fly-catches from exposed perches, periodically darting out after its prey, and its brightly-hued plumage glows even in the dim light of the forest interior.

A series of squawks and deep trills will lead us to the splendid endemic Cuban Trogon, resplendent in its immaculate plumage of violet-blue, white and red, set off by its strangely-shaped tail. Like most trogons, they tend to sit motionlessly, and once located they often allow prolonged views.

Small noisy groups of Red-legged Honeycreepers scuttle around in the canopy, the males by this time in their stunning breeding plumage of black, deep violet and sky blue complete with a pair of improbably scarlet legs. Cuban Emeralds, by far the commoner of the two resident hummingbirds (and restricted to Cuba and the Bahamas), whirr inquisitively above our heads in a blur of greens. West Indian Woodpeckers (restricted to Cuba, the Bahamas and Grand Cayman) and endemic Cuban Green Woodpeckers call noisily from the moss-covered trunks, Western Spindalises (or Western Stripe-headed Tanagers), Northern Mockingbirds, Red-legged Thrushes, Black-whiskered Vireos and endemic Cuban Orioles (part of the split Greater Antillean Oriole complex) greedily devour the fruits of forest shrubs whilst on the forest floor we may find an Ovenbird silently foraging and perhaps a Ruddy Quail-Dove.

One can never fail to be captivated by Black-and-white Warblers with their insect-hunting antics (which include creeping up the trunks of trees in a most un-warbler-like fashion) and smart American Redstarts that flash flame and black as they spread their tails in the tall trees. In the understorey, noisy groups of endemic Yellow-headed Warblers (one of two members of the Cuban-endemic bird family Teretristridae) move through and a loud and repetitive song should soon lead us to another endemic, the Cuban Vireo.

Overhead, Turkey Vultures (incredibly common in Cuba) soar effortlessly and are sometimes joined by Red-tailed and Broad-winged Hawks. We will be keeping an eye on the sky as we also have our first chance of finding the rare and elusive endemic Gundlach’s Hawk in this area.

Other species we can expect include La Sagra’s Flycatcher (found only in Cuba, the Bahamas and Grand Cayman), Crescent-eyed (or Cuban) Pewee (restricted to Cuba and the Bahamas), Cuban Bullfinch (restricted to Cuba and Grand Cayman) and the endemic Cuban Blackbird, as well as Scaly-naped Pigeon, Zenaida and Mourning Doves, Yellow-bellied Sapsucker, Gray and Loggerhead Kingbirds, and Gray Catbird.

We will also visit a farming area where flocks of tiny Yellow-faced Grassquits are often joined by their rare but attractive endemic relative, the Cuban Grassquit.

We should encounter a number of widespread open country species for the first time, including Western Cattle Egret, White-winged Dove, Common Ground-Dove, the strange Smooth-billed Ani, Antillean Palm-Swift, Palm Warbler, Common Yellowthroat, Indigo Bunting, Eastern Meadowlark, Greater Antillean Grackle, Tawny-shouldered Blackbird and Shiny Cowbird.

Cuba: Day 3  After further birding in the San Diego de Los Banos region we will return to the Havana region for an overnight stay.

On our way, we will make short stops at one or two reservoirs are likely to produce Pied-billed and Least Grebes, Little Blue and Green Herons, Blue-winged Teal, Ring-necked Duck, Lesser Scaup, Ruddy Duck and American Coot.

Cuba: Day 4  Today we shall drive to Camagüey, a bustling city in south-central Cuba, where we will stay for two nights.

Sugar plantations, where grinning children play at the roadside or chew short lengths of sweet cane, are a frequent sight along the way, and here we will encounter the species which typify so much of agricultural Cuba and which will become very familiar during our stay.

A short stop at the edge of the Zapata Swamp may turn up our first endemic Zapata Sparrows and Red-shouldered Blackbirds. At our lunchtime stop, we are likely to encounter our first Cape May Warblers in the garden.

Cuba: Day 5  We shall spend today exploring the edge of the Sierra de Najasa, an area of rocky outcrops, open forests and palm groves south of Camagüey. As the sun warms up, a raucous array of parrot-like squeals and squawks which, amazingly, emanate from the near-endemic Cuban Crows, will entertain us as we focus our attention on the palm groves and forest patches. These areas contain much of interest and here we have a good chance of finding several specialities that are rare and difficult to find elsewhere. Plain Pigeons perch conspicuously on dead trees and colour is added by spectacular Cuban Amazons or Rose-throated Parrots (a species found in Cuba, the Bahamas and the Cayman Islands) and dashing endemic Cuban Parakeets. We may see the parakeets nesting in ‘tower block’ fashion in a dead palm tree, squabbling with West Indian Woodpeckers for the nesting cavities.

The rare and localized endemic Giant Kingbird can often be found perched in their favourite trees and Cuban Palm Crows (another exceedingly rare endemic species) give themselves away with their Rook-like calls (they look nearly identical to Cuban Crows!). Large, sluggish Great Lizard Cuckoos (found only in Cuba and the Bahamas) call loudly from within dense undergrowth, looking almost reptilian in their movements as they crawl around in search of a suitable vantage point from which to pounce on their unsuspecting prey.

Other species we may well find in this area include Black-crowned Night-Heron, Northern Crested-Caracara, the strange Limpkin, Common and Purple Gallinules, Northern Jacana, Northern Flicker (the endemic race is a potential split) and the endemic Fernandina’s Flicker.

Cuba: Day 6  Today we shall drive to Cayo Coco, one of the islands off the northern coast of Cuba, where we shall stay for two nights. We should have time for some initial exploration of this exciting area.

En route, we will pass through the interesting and bird-rich Sierra de Cubitas. Roadside stops here often produce large numbers of by now familiar species, including good numbers of warblers. Among the latter, we should find our first endemic Oriente Warblers (the second member of the endemic Teretristridae family). We will also stop at a lake where Anhinga and Snail Kite are often present.

Cuba: Day 7  It is the variety of habitats that makes Cayo Coco and the adjacent islands and causeway so special, for these low-lying islands are not only covered in thick jungle but also feature mangrove-fringed ponds, large mudflats and idyllic long sandy beaches.

One of our main targets here is the endemic Zapata Sparrow. Cayo Coco is the only place where the isolated race varonai occurs and our chances of seeing this rare sparrow with its bright butter-yellow breast and chestnut crown are better here than in the Zapata Swamp.

We shall also make a concerted effort to find three other uncommon and localized species, namely the delicate endemic Cuban Gnatcatcher, the restricted-range Bahama Mockingbird and the restricted-range (and, post the 2017 hurricane, very rare) Thick-billed Vireo, all of which inhabit the arid coastal scrub, and we will have our first chance to seek out the shy but colourful Key West Quail-Dove. This is also a good area for the endemic Cuban Black-Hawk and the declining West Indian Whistling-Duck, while White-crowned Pigeons can be relatively common.

Overhead, Magnificent Frigatebirds watch menacingly for a chance to rob Laughing Gulls of their last meals, Brown Pelicans and Western Ospreys plummet into the turquoise waters, Reddish Egrets pirouette madly during their frenzied fishing and deep-pink American Flamingos carefully sift the shallows. We shall all enjoy this absorbing opportunity to compare and contrast the many and varied feeding techniques of wetland birds as well as marvel at their beauty and diversity.

Among the other species that we may well encounter here are Double-crested and Neotropic Cormorants, Great Blue Heron (often including several individuals of the uncommon white and intermediate morphs), Tricolored Heron, Yellow-crowned Night-Heron, Great and Snowy Egrets, White Ibis, Roseate Spoonbill, Red-breasted Merganser (looking strangely out of place in the azure waters of the Caribbean), Merlin, Clapper Rail, Ring-billed and Laughing Gulls (often joined by an immature American Herring Gull or two), Caspian, Royal and Sandwich Terns, Belted Kingfisher, Prairie Warbler and Mangrove Warbler (split from Yellow). We should also see a good variety of waders including Black-necked Stilt, Semipalmated and Black-bellied (or Grey) Plovers, Killdeer, Greater and Lesser Yellowlegs, Short-billed Dowitcher, Willet, Spotted, Least, Semipalmated and Western Sandpipers, Sanderling and Ruddy Turnstone.

Cuba: Day 8  After some final birding on Cayo Coco we shall settle down for the long drive to Playa Giron where we shall stay for four nights. We will arrive in time for some initial exploration.

Cuba: Days 9-11  Playa Giron is situated at the edge of the Bahia de los Cochinos, better known as the ‘Bay of Pigs’, on the Caribbean coast southeast of Havana. Its hinterland is the richest single area for birds in Cuba and almost certainly in the whole Caribbean. The wide range of habitats, mostly contained within the confines of the Cienaga de Zapata National Park, are all within easy reach. In the dry forest the bare, eroded limestone substrate reveals that this area was once, thousands of years ago, formed by coral reefs. As we explore this fantastic area, spindly branches covered in pale green lichen crack underfoot, colourful butterflies silently glide past and enormous land crabs scuttle away, huge scarlet claws held aloft.

During our various outings in this productive area, we may well encounter the rare Gundlach’s Hawk as it hunts through the trees, setting off alarm cries from other denizens of the forest. A cautious inspection of some dead palm trunks may well reveal a family of endemic Bare-legged Owls and, in the more open areas, we will have another chance of finding the ground-loving Fernandina’s Flicker.

In sunlit forest glades flowering trees can contain a host of warblers: visiting Magnolia, Cape May, Black-throated Blue, Black-throated Green, Yellow-throated and Prairie Warblers, plus Northern Parula and Louisiana Waterthrush, can all be found here, as can the endemic Yellow-headed Warbler.

The smallest bird in the world, the endemic Bee Hummingbird, is regularly encountered at village gardens (finding this tiny bird that is scarcely larger than a bumble-bee in more ‘natural’ habitat is a major challenge we can happily avoid!). Its amazingly compact size combined with a brilliant red head and elongated side plumes make it one of the true gems of the Zapata area.

A noise amongst the leaf litter on the forest floor may prove to be one of the four species of quail-dove which this area holds: Gray-fronted (now a Cuban endemic following the splitting off of White-fronted Quail-Dove on Hispaniola), Ruddy, Key West and Blue-headed (another endemic). All of them have attractive and colourful plumages, perhaps rather surprisingly considering their rather secretive habits, but they are nevertheless extremely well camouflaged. With perseverance and a certain amount of luck, we should be able to see all of them.

As dusk turns into darkness the diurnal species fall silent, except perhaps for a mewing Gray Catbird, and we shall listen for the endemic Cuban Nightjar and look for them with a spotlight as they hawk over tracks or call from a roadside tree. We shall also look for the endemic Cuban Pygmy-Owl and the impressive Stygian Owl (for Cuba is probably the best place for observing this spectacular species). Tours late in the prime Cuban spring birding season may also encounter Antillean Nighthawk, a seasonal visitor. The aerial antics of this species are impressive, and at times they ‘whoosh’ overhead in a steep dive, occasionally passing just a few metres away!

During our stay in the area, we shall penetrate right into the heart of the Zapata Swamp where endemic Red-shouldered Blackbirds cling precariously to reed stems uttering their strange wheezing songs. Here amongst the dense rushes we shall try and lure the rare and very secretive endemic Zapata Wren into a low bush from where we may be able to watch him sing.

Sharing this habitat are Northern Waterthrush and the rare Zapata form of the Zapata Sparrow. Spotted Rails are sometimes heard in these swamps and occasionally glimpsed, but the very rare and little-known endemic Zapata Rail remains something of an enigma and we have no realistic chance of seeing one! Wood Stork, Glossy Ibis and Peregrine are sometimes seen overhead. Cuban Martins will be fresh back from their as yet undiscovered wintering grounds, whilst other hirundines may include Barn, Cave, Tree and Northern Rough-winged Swallows.

Cuba: Day 12  After some final Cuban birding we will have time to wash, change and pack at our hotel and enjoy a last lunch before we drive to Havana airport, where our tour ends in the early evening.


by Leo Garrigues

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