4 / 7 February - 18 February 2023

by Pete Morris

With the closing of the Cana Airstrip in Eastern Panama, our birding tours to Panama had been put on hold for some time, while we waited, and waited, and waited… It eventually became clear that it wasn’t coming back in a hurry and consequently a new strategy was required, and a little more time in-country needed! The strategy we came up with was to split Panama into two reasonably short trips, each with some great key birds, but with a major difference. This, the Western and Central tour is the ‘easier’ half, largely staying in comfortable accommodation, and with relatively easy walking and living conditions. The Darien half on the other hand, requires both a lot more physical effort and much more tricky living conditions, with a lot of very basic camping. The two tours complement each other perfectly, and if combined, as some clients did this year, give a very complete coverage of this extremely birdy country, and indeed, we managed a very high proportion of the targets we were seeking.

So back to this tour, which began with an optional three days around Panama City and the Canal Zone, before flying out to David in the far west of the country. From here we made our way back through various highlands, took a side trip out to Coiba Island and finished at Nusagandi, just to the east of Panama City. In just two weeks we recorded just over 450 species, a phenomenal number in such a short space of time. But of course, it’s not the quantity, it’s the quality, and that too was high! For most of us, spending time with a couple of incredible Rufous-vented Ground Cuckoos at an active army ant swarm, was the absolute pinnacle! Seeing the rare Maroon-chested Ground Dove, a singing male, in the western highlands was another top moment, whilst our exploration of the highlands yielded endemics such as White-throated Mountaingem and Yellow-green Brushfinch as well as regional specialities such as Lattice-tailed Trogon and Wrenthrush. Our day trip out to Coiba was great fun, allowing us to see Coiba Spinetail and Azuero Dove, and our final destination, Nusagandi, added some real class with the stunning Black-crowned Antpitta, the much-wanted Sapayoa, and the poorly known Speckled Antshrike, a virtual endemic that is placed in its own monotypic genus. Of course, this is barely scratching the surface, so read on…

We began the pre-tour extension in Panama City itself, where we kicked off our birding in the excellent Metropolitan Park. Here we picked our way through the numerous joggers and walkers and managed to find some great birds, almost the first of which was the much-wanted Rosy Thrush-tanager, a species now placed in its own monotypic family. Even at this dark and early hour, the bubble-gum pink underparts of this gaudy species glowed out of the undergrowth! Almost as popular was a lovely Green Shrike-Vireo, and other good early species included Black-throated Trogon, Golden-fronted Greenlet, migrant Yellow-throated Vireos and chunky Black-chested Jays. As the trails became busier and busier, we switched to another nearby reserve, where we were quickly able to find the other main target for the morning, the somewhat less impressive, though endemic, Panama Tyrannulet, a pair of which showed extremely well.

We then made our way over to our comfortable hotel in the Canal Zone, where we spent most of the rest of the day, eating relaxing and exploring the nearby areas. This proved to be a great introduction to the Central American avifauna as we found a good variety of typical species including the smart Whooping Motmot, musical Rufous-breasted and Rufous-and-white Wrens, a good variety of warblers including Chestnut-capped Warbler, and north American migrants such as Bay-breasted, Chestnut-sided and delightful Prothonotary Warblers, and some smart tanagers including the gaudy Golden-hooded Tanager and the localized Plain-coloured Tanager. Late in the afternoon we enjoyed a pair of Yellow Tyrannulets, some busy Mangrove Swallows, and a variety of colourful denizens perching out in the late afternoon sun, including dazzling honeycreepers and Blue Dacnis.

The following day we were out early and made our way into Soberania National Park, and to the top of the tower at the Rainforest Discovery Centre. It’s quite a climb up, but once there, you really do get an amazing view over the extensive rainforest canopy and unique views of some of the birds that spend their time in or even above the canopy! The electric Blue Cotinga was a top target, and after much scanning we enjoyed good scope views of this lovely species. A Black-breasted Puffbird gave really awesome views, as did some smart Cinnamon Woodpeckers. Parrots, including many Red-lored Amazons were frequently passing whilst it was great to be at eye-level with magnificent Keel-billed and Yellow-billed Toucans. At the opposite end of the spectrum, we spent some time watching a tiny, but thankfully vocal, Moustached Antwren, that was way smaller than the leaves it foraged in.

Back down at ground level, we walked some trails, enjoying a Great Tinamou, lekking Long-billed Hermits, a Crane Hawk, the docile White-whiskered Puffbird, smart Fasciated Antshrikes, the strange Southern Bentbill, Black-bellied Wren, Red-throated Ant Tanager and Grey-headed Tanager. We also encountered a mixed flock with the excellent Spot-crowned Antvireo, Checker-throated Stipplethroat, and Dot-winged Antwren, and watched some hummingbird feeders where highlights included the gaudy Violet-bellied Hummingbird as well as the more subtle Snowy-bellied and Blue-chested Hummingbirds. Here we also had a close-up encounter with a confiding Broad-billed Motmot. Just before lunch we found a couple of Bicolored Antbirds that were briefly joined by two Ocellated Antbirds. After lunch we made further explorations along the pipeline road, though it was fairly quiet. We did manage a few new species, such as a male Ruddy Quail-Dove and Purple-throated Fruitcrow, and in some more open areas found some other new species including Panama Flycatcher, Isthmian Wren, Yellow-backed and Yellow-tailed Orioles, and in the pools, Muscovy Duck and Rufescent Tiger Heron.

News had reached us that just over a couple of hours away, an active army antswarm had been found, complete with the holy grail, Rufous-vented Ground Cuckoo. Even better, the army ants had gone to roost in a known spot! This proved to be too much of a temptation, and we set off well before dawn, heading for El Valle. Sadly, the day of our visit proved to be a pretty damp and unpleasant one, and in such weather, ants often remain inside, not coming out to play. They did appear a little, but never really got going, and consequently the attendees of the swarm were equally uncooperative. The Rufous-vented Ground Cuckoo was there, but seemed very shy, and most did not see it well sadly. We did find a few other species, best of which was the very showy Streak-chested Antpitta. Other species of note included Rufous Motmot, Spotted and Chestnut-backed Antbirds, entertaining Black-faced Antthrushes, Southern Nightingale and Song Wrens, Tawny-faced Gnatwren and gangs of Tawny-crested Tanagers. We spent a long time hanging around, and ultimately left the area somewhat deflated, one of those so close yet so far experiences for those that failed to get great views. Luckily, it wasn’t to be our last chance!

We returned to Panama City and spent the late afternoon at the incredible Panama Viejo. Here we found Northern Scrub Flycatcher, but it was the huge numbers of gulls, terns, waders and herons that were quite staggering. Amongst the thousands of Laughing Gulls, we managed to pick out a number of Franklin’s Gulls as well as a couple of Ring-billed Gulls and American Herring Gulls, an adult Lesser Black-backed Gull and even a Grey-headed Gull! Amongst the waders, Marbled Godwits, Short-billed Dowitchers and (Western) Willets stood out, Northern Shovelers were unexpected, and an incredibly white Neotropic Cormorant caused some excitement! After a long day, we made our way to Tocumen, where the main tour commenced.

The main tour began the following morning with a flight to David, way over in the far west of the country. By the time we left the airport at David it was already pretty warm. Fortunately, we were joined by one of Panama’s finest bird guides, Ito, and we soon realised that we were in safe hands as we were guided straight to our first target, the localized Veraguan Mango, which showed well in roadside trees as a Pearl Kite drifted overhead. As we headed up into the highlands we paused at another spot where we soon found another target, the localized Chiriqui Yellowthroat, which showed well after some effort.

We then made our way up to Cerro Punta, our base for the next couple of nights. Much to our delight, the immediate vicinity of our hotel was alive with birds. Hummingbird feeders held the smart endemic White-throated Mountaingem (our main target here), as well as Violet Sabrewing, Stripe-tailed and Snowy-bellied Hummingbirds, Slaty Flowerpiercer and an elusive Scintillant Hummingbird, whilst the lovely gardens provided entertaining Long-tailed Silky-flycatchers, as well as colourful Flame-coloured and Silver-throated Tanagers.

That afternoon we made our way higher into the highlands. Our first stop yielded a lovely Resplendent Quetzal, the subtle but scarce White-fronted Tyrannulet and the elusive Black-thighed Grosbeak. Moving higher to the Sendero Quetzales, we were treated to an absolute feast of highland Chiriqui Highland endemics, birds that are only otherwise found in the highlands of Costa Rica. These included a fantastic Costa Rican Pygmy Owl that was mobbed by a Volcano Hummingbird and Collared Whitestart amongst others, an attractive pair of (Orange-bellied) Collared Trogons, smart Spot-crowned Woodcreeper and Ruddy Treerunner, the skulking Silvery-fronted Tapaculo, Yellowish Flycatcher, and a mixed flock that included Yellow-winged Vireo, Ochraceous Wren, Sooty-capped Chlorospingus, the brilliant Flame-throated Warbler and Black-cheeked Warbler. We also saw our first Wrenthrush, but it wasn’t too obliging. That aside, it had been a fantastic start to the tour.

The following morning, we found ourselves on a rather unimpressive-looking hillside on the outside of Volcan. As the light improved, our perception of the hillside soon changed, as we had a brilliant male Maroon-chested Ground Dove lined up in the scope; and smiling faces! With that under the belt, we headed back to the highlands, and spent some time around an excellent set of feeders. Here the stars of the show were the fantastic Fiery-throated Hummingbirds and the numerous showy male White-throated Mountaingems and these were joined by impressive Talamanca Hummingbirds and a Green-crowned Brilliant. Also on offer was some seed, and this lured in both Large-footed Finch and Yellow-thighed Brushfinch. We also made a short walk along the trails where many of the highland endemics were again present, but best of all was a fantastically showy Wrenthrush and some cute Black-billed Nightingale-Thrushes along the trail.

In the afternoon we dropped down to some lower forest near to Volcan. Here our first target was the localized Costa Rican Brushfinch, which we found grovelling in the undergrowth alongside Orange-billed Sparrows and Chestnut-capped Brushfinches. Also here was the recently split Chiriqui Foliage-gleaner, as well as some other nice additions to our ever-growing list including White-throated Spadebill, White-ruffed Manakin, a gorgeous male Golden-winged Warbler and Red-crowned Ant Tanager.

We visited another highland area the following morning at Los Nubes, where we concentrated on finding a few more of the highland specialities. Another Costa Rican Pygmy Owl entertained us, this time a bright rufous individual! Also here were an entertaining pair of Prong-billed Barbets, showy Streak-breasted Treehunters, Buffy Tuftedcheek, the impressive Black-and-yellow Phainoptila, the regionally endemic Black-capped Flycatcher, a lovely Ruddy-capped Nightingale-Thrush and rather drab Mountain Thrushes. The local races of Acorn and Hairy Woodpeckers were appreciated, and a few Sulphur-winged Parakeets flashed by.

In the afternoon we headed lower, as we were spending the night in David, but stopped on the way and spent some time at one of Ito’s friend’s properties. Here we spent some time chasing displaying manakins in the undergrowth and came away with brilliant views of stunning Velvety and Orange-collared Manakins. Also here we found the localized Grey-headed Chachalaca, a Laughing Falcon, and a Fiery-billed Aracari for some, whilst the feeders attracted a number of species including Scaly-breasted Hummingbird, and the attractive Spot-crowned Euphonia.

The following day we made our way up to another of Western Panama’s birding hotspots, the Fortuna Road. Birding was slow at first though we did find a female Lattice-tailed Trogon, one of our main targets. Also along the road were Crested Guan, the recently split Fawn-throated Foliage-gleaner, smart Dull-mantled and Zeledon’s Antbirds, Tawny-capped Euphonia, colourful Crimson-collared and Emerald Tanagers, and Yellow-throated Chlorospingus, of the local race which is split by some as Drab-breasted Chlorospingus. We also tried a side road higher up where it was somewhat cool and misty. Here we found a few more goodies including White-bellied Mountaingem, Black-bellied Hummingbird, the localized Black-eared Warbler, and more widespread species including Lineated Foliage-gleaner, Golden-bellied Flycatcher and Band-backed Wren. With birding getting quieter and quieter, we headed lower for lunch, and here we were delighted to find a soaring Ornate Hawk-Eagle and a couple of White Hawks.

After lunch we made our way back over the mountain and down to the coast at Los Lajos. Here, once it cooled down a little, we explored some nearby wetlands where huge numbers of Black-bellied Whistling Ducks were joined by a few Semipalmated and Western Sandpipers. The nearby trees held a number of open country species, including more Veraguan Mangos, and Grey-cowled Wood Rails foraged, but perhaps the sighting of the afternoon was of a most unexpected Neotropical River Otter that caused excitement as it swam through the waterbirds!

The following morning, we made our way up to Cerro Colorado. The journey itself was quite interesting as we made our way up the mountain and past landslides in a rather uncomfortable jeep, whilst outside there was a howling gale, fog and rain – the ultimate combination!! We eventually made it to our destination and found a little shelter as we birded along the road through patches of decent forest. It took a while, but we did in the end succeed with great views of a couple of pairs of the endemic Yellow-green Brushfinch, one pair hanging out with a pair of White-naped Brushfinches. Also here were Purple-throated Mountaingems, a terrific Brown-billed Scythebill, and several smart Spangle-cheeked Tanagers, though sadly the views of Black-faced Solitaire and Golden-browed Chlorophonia were relatively brief. The weather really wasn’t on our side, and to be honest it was good to escape the mountain having secured our treasure! It was then a long drive to the coastal resort of Santa Catalina, where some of us explored near to the hotel, finding Ferruginous Pygmy Owl and a few Sapphire-throated Hummingbirds.

The following day was another big day, as it was our day out to Coiba Island. We boarded our speedboat at first light and embarked on the rather lumpy two hour crossing to the island which was sadly somewhat birdless! Once at the island we made our way to a great little trail where our two Birdquest Lifers soon obliged, with stunning views of both the Azuero Dove and Coiba Spinetail. Also here were some smart Lance-tailed Manakins. excellent Blue-throated Sapphires and more Grey-cowled Wood Rails as well as a number of species represented on Coiba by endemic subspecies, and these included, Red-crowned Woodpecker, Barred Antshrike, Sepia-capped Flycatcher, Rufous-browed Peppershrike, Scrub Greenlet, White-browed Gnatcatcher, Black-striped Sparrow, Chestnut-capped Warbler and Crimson-backed Tanager. After a great morning we made our way around to the park headquarters to register, and for our lunch. Here, a fine Bare-throated Tiger Heron graced the beach, a smart King Vulture drifted over, a confiding pair of Common Black Hawks entertained, and some brilliant Scarlet Macaws gave great views. We also found the very dark and distinctive Coiba subspecies of Yellow-faced Grassquit before we left!

Well the next day was ’round 2′, and again an early start was required as we returned to La Mesa, near to El Valle. The news was that the antswarm and its attendees were still present the previous day, and once again hopes were high. Sadly the weather was once more a little dreary, and upon arrival not much was happening, but the ants were still there; just having a lie-in! Eventually they did begin to swarm, and once they had, the holy grail arrived! We then spent the next hour or so having the most incredible and intimate experience with at least two stunning Rufous-vented Ground Cuckoos! One of those once in a lifetime experiences that everyone dreams of, but not everyone is lucky enough to achieve! Nearby, we waited at some heliconia flowers, where it didn’t take too long for a brilliant White-tipped Sicklebill to come in to feed. It’s always interesting watching these strange hummingbirds, as they cling clumsily on to the flower with their tiny feet! A few other widespread birds were seen again, but hey, it was really a two species morning!!

That afternoon we popped down to an interesting road close to the coast. Here, in dry woodland we found Sapphire-throated Hummingbird, Northern Mouse-coloured Tyrannulet and Pale-eyed Pygmy Tyrant, whilst over the open areas we found a number of raptors including Savanna and Zone-tailed Hawks, as well as a few American Cliff Swallows. Down at the beach a few waders and terns included a fine Elegant Tern with the Cabot’s and Royal Terns.

A trip to Omar Torrijos NP was next on the agenda, and once again the weather was not exactly kind to us. We soldiered on regardless and managed a few good birds during the morning which included a lovely Yellow-eared Toucanet, a fantastic male Lattice-tailed Trogon, an amazing Mottled Owl in broad daylight, a Spot-crowned Barbet in a fruiting tree, a really showy Northern Schiffornis, Isthmian Wrens, Black-and-yellow Tanagers, and, for some, a Snowcap. Actually, put like that, it doesn’t sound too bad at all!! We then made our way back to Panama City where we paused at Coste del Este. Not a huge amount was going on, but we were very pleased to see a Mangrove Cuckoo.

It was now time for the final leg of our tour, and the following morning we set off for Nusagandi, situated in the foothills on the rather wet Caribbean slope to the northwest of Panama City. And wet it was! We endured rather more rain and mud than we would have liked, as we trudged along some rather difficult trails with a few very specific targets in mind! And although the trails were not overly pleasant, we did end up finding nearly all of our targets. Our reason for sliding down muddy trails was to get to ravines favoured by the unique Sapayoa, which we were lucky to get first class views of. Also here was a Choco Manakin and a somewhat bedraggled Plumbeous Hawk, and, on our second attempt, the ‘holy grail’ of Nusagandi, the rare Speckled Antshrike! Although not the greatest looker, this scarce species is placed in its own genus and is a hard species to find!

On another trail, we had a fabulous time with a superb Black-crowned Antpitta, whilst along the road we pulled in a stunning male Stripe-cheeked Woodpecker, and the much-wanted Sulphur-rumped Tanager. Other interesting species here included Purple-crowned Fairy, Bronze-tailed Plumeleteer, Short-billed Pigeon, a delightful male Red-capped Manakin, Carmiol’s Tanager, Shining Honeycreeper, the smart Scarlet-thighed Dacnis and the excellent Rufous-winged Tanager. We also found more Spot-crowned Antvireos. Around the lodge we enjoyed some superb Short-tailed Nighthawks, though sadly the Choco Screech Owls that we heard steadfastly refused to show.

And that was it… As we made our way back to Panama City’s Tocumen Airport, we added a Double-toothed Kite, and by popular demand, popped in to see the talking and laughing Mealy Parrots!! It really had been an excellent inaugural Western and Central Panama tour, one which had found nearly all of the hoped-for regional specialities. For some, the long flights home lay ahead, for others, the adventures of Panama’s Darien Wilderness were about to commence!!





3rd        WRENTHRUSH

4th         Speckled Antshrike

5th=       Sapayoa

5th=       White-tipped Sicklebill



Species marked with the diamond symbol (◊) are either endemic to the country or local region or considered ‘special’ birds for some other reason (e.g., it is only seen on one or two Birdquest tours; it is difficult to see across all or most of its range; the local form is endemic or restricted-range and may in future be treated as a full species).

The species names and taxonomy used in the bird list follows Gill, F., Donsker, D., & Rasmussen, P.(Eds). 2023. IOC World Bird List (v13.2) (this was the current version when the checklist for the tour report was created).

Where the subspecies seen is/are known, these are often given in parentheses at the end of the species comment.

Species only seen on the pre-tour extension are marked (P).


Great Tinamou  Tinamus major (P)  One seen at the Rainforest Discovery Centre, Pipeline Road [saturatus].

Black-bellied Whistling Duck  Dendrocygna autumnalis  100s at Playa Las Lajas [fulgens].

Muscovy Duck  Cairina moschata (P)  Good views of one at the start of the Pipeline Road.

Blue-winged Teal  Spatula discors

Northern Shoveler  Spatula clypeata (P)  Three at Panama Viejo were probably unusual.

Grey-headed Chachalaca ◊  Ortalis cinereiceps 

Crested Guan  Penelope purpurascens  Seen well along the Fortuna Road [aequatorialis].

Black-eared Wood Quail ◊  Odontophorus melanotis  Heard only [nominate].

Spotted Wood Quail ◊  Odontophorus guttatus  Heard only.

Short-tailed Nighthawk  Lurocalis semitorquatus  Brilliant views of two around Burbayar Lodge at Nusagandi [stonei].

White-collared Swift  Streptoprocne zonaris  [bouchellii].

Band-rumped Swift  Chaetura spinicaudus

Vaux’s Swift  Chaetura vauxi  Several seen over the road at Nusagandi [ochropygia].

Short-tailed Swift  Chaetura brachyura (P)  [nominate].

White-necked Jacobin  Florisuga mellivora [nominate]. 

White-tipped Sicklebill Eutoxeres aquila  Great views of one coming to Heliconias at La Mesa, above El Valle [salvini].

Stripe-throated Hermit  Phaethornis striigularis  [saturatus]. 

Green Hermit  Phaethornis guy  [corruscus]. 

Long-billed Hermit  Phaethornis longirostris  [cephalus]. 

Lesser Violetear  Colibri cyanotus  [cabanidis]. 

Purple-crowned Fairy  Heliothryx barroti  One seen at Nusagandi.

Veraguan Mango ◊  Anthracothorax veraguensis  Great views of a male and female near to David Airport. Also great views of a male at Playa Las Lajas.

Black-throated Mango  Anthracothorax nigricollis  (P) [nominate].

Green-crowned Brilliant ◊  Heliodoxa jacula  [henryi].

Talamanca Hummingbird ◊  Eugenes spectabilis  Several seen well around Cerro Punta.

Fiery-throated Hummingbird ◊  Panterpe insignis  Common at the Tamandua Reserve above the Cabanas Quetzales, Cerro Punta [nominate].

Long-billed Starthroat  Heliomaster longirostris  [nominate].

White-bellied Mountaingem ◊  Lampornis hemileucus  A male and female seen high on the Fortuna Road.

Purple-throated Mountaingem ◊  Lampornis calolaemus  Several seen well at Cerro Colorado [homogenes].

White-throated Mountaingem ◊  Lampornis castaneoventris  Brilliant views of many in the highlands around Cerro Punta.

Volcano Hummingbird ◊  Selasphorus flammula  A male seen at the start of the Sendero Quetzales, in Volcan Baru NP [torridus].

Scintillant Hummingbird ◊  Selasphorus scintilla  A male seen at the feeders in Barrio Guadalupe and another female later.

Violet-headed Hummingbird  Klais guimeti  A female seen at Omar Torrijos NP, above El Cope [merrittii].

Violet Sabrewing ◊  Campylopterus hemileucurus  Several seen well around Cerro Punta [mellitus].

Bronze-tailed Plumeleteer  Chalybura urochrysia  A couple seen at Nusagandi [isaurae].

Crowned Woodnymph  Thalurania colombica  [venusta].

Snowcap ◊  Microchera albocoronata  A male for some of the group.

White-tailed Emerald ◊  Microchera chionura  Heard only.

Stripe-tailed Hummingbird ◊  Eupherusa eximia  Several seen well around Cerro Punta [egregia].

Black-bellied Hummingbird ◊  Eupherusa nigriventris  A cracking male seen in the upper forest along the Fortuna Road.

Scaly-breasted Hummingbird ◊  Phaeochroa cuvierii  Several at Birder’s Paradise, near Volcan [furvescens].

Snowy-bellied Hummingbird ◊  Saucerottia edward  Nominate seen around Panama City. Also seen around Cerro Punta and on Coiba Island [niveoventer].

Rufous-tailed Hummingbird  Amazilia tzacatl  [nominate].

Sapphire-throated Hummingbird ◊  Chrysuronia coeruleogularis  A couple seen in a flowering tree  at Playa Las Lajas. A few others noted. A nice male along the road to Juan Hombron, southeast of Anton [nominate].

Blue-chested Hummingbird  Polyerata amabilis  Seen at the feeders at the Rainforest Discovery Centre, Pipeline Road.

Blue-throated Sapphire ◊ (B-t Goldentail)  Chlorestes eliciae  Several seen well along the Sendero Los Pozos on Coiba Island [earina].

Violet-bellied Hummingbird ◊  Chlorestes julie (P)  Seen at the feeders at the Rainforest Discovery Centre, Pipeline Road [panamensis].

Greater Ani  Crotophaga major (P)  One for some.

Smooth-billed Ani  Crotophaga ani 

Groove-billed Ani  Crotophaga sulcirostris 

Rufous-vented Ground Cuckoo ◊  Neomorphus geoffroyi  On our second visit to the antswarm at La Mesa, above El Valle, the ants became active by 10am and we had an amazing couple of hours watching the ground cuckoos at times down to just a few metres. A stunning experience watching the crest raise up and down and tail cock up and down as they pounced on insects. Purple and green iridescence in the sunlight amazing. Largely silent other than quiet snaps as they grabbed insects! A MEGA experience and our bird-of-the-trip!!! [salvini]. 

Squirrel Cuckoo  Piaya cayana  [thermophila].

Mangrove Cuckoo  Coccyzus minor  Good views of one at Costa del Este.

Rock Dove (Feral Pigeon)  Columba livia ‘feral’ 

Scaled Pigeon  Patagioenas speciosa (P)

Band-tailed Pigeon  Patagioenas fasciata  [crissalis]. 

Pale-vented Pigeon  Patagioenas cayennensis  [pallidicrissa]. 

Short-billed Pigeon  Patagioenas nigrirostris  Seen very well at Nusagandi.

Plain-breasted Ground Dove  Columbina minuta  Non leader.

Ruddy Ground Dove  Columbina talpacoti  [rufipennis].

Blue Ground Dove  Claravis pretiosa  Seen well along the road to Juan Hombron, southeast of Anton.

Maroon-chested Ground Dove ◊  Paraclaravis mondetoura  Great views of a male that came to playback in some thick scrub at the border between forest and agriculture, near to Cerro Punta. Great bird, seen very well!

Ruddy Quail-Dove  Geotrygon montana (P)  A male seen well along the Pipeline Road [nominate].

White-tipped Dove  Leptotila verreauxi  [nominate].

Azuero Dove ◊  Leptotila battyi  Brilliant views of four along the Sendero Los Pozos on Coiba Island. Seen very well on the deck and singing from trees. A very smart bird [nominate]!

Mourning Dove  Zenaida macroura  [turturilla]. 

Grey-cowled Wood Rail  Aramides cajaneus  A few including two along the Sendero Los Pozos on Coiba Island [nominate].

Common Gallinule  Gallinula galeata  [cachinnans]. 

American Coot  Fulica americana  [nominate]. 

Purple Gallinule  Porphyrio martinica 

White-throated Crake  Laterallus albigularis  Heard only [nominate].

Pied-billed Grebe  Podilymbus podiceps  [nominate].

Black-necked Stilt  Himantopus mexicanus  [nominate].

Southern Lapwing  Vanellus chilensis  [cayennensis].

Grey Plover  Pluvialis squatarola  [cynosurae]. 

Semipalmated Plover  Charadrius semipalmatus 

Killdeer  Charadrius vociferus  [nominate].

Northern Jacana  Jacana spinosa 

Wattled Jacana (Black-backed W J)  Jacana [jacana] hypomelaena 

Hudsonian Whimbrel  Numenius hudsonicus 

Marbled Godwit  Limosa fedoa  Two in amongst all the waders at Panama Viejo [nominate].

Sanderling  Calidris alba  A small flock on Coiba Island [rubida].

Least Sandpiper  Calidris minutilla 

Semipalmated Sandpiper  Calidris pusilla 

Western Sandpiper  Calidris mauri  One or two in the waders at Playa Las Lajas.

Short-billed Dowitcher  Limnodromus griseus 

Spotted Sandpiper  Actitis macularius 

Solitary Sandpiper  Tringa solitaria 

Lesser Yellowlegs  Tringa flavipes 

Willet (Western W)  Tringa [semipalmata] inornata 

Greater Yellowlegs  Tringa melanoleuca 

Grey-headed Gull  Chroicocephalus cirrocephalus (P)  One in the large flock of Laughing Gulls at Panama Viejo [nominate].

Laughing Gull  Leucophaeus atricilla  [megalopterus]. 

Franklin’s Gull  Leucophaeus pipixcan  A few 1st winters (2cys) in the large flock of Laughing Gulls at Panama Viejo.

Ring-billed Gull  Larus delawarensis  A 1st winter (2cy) in the large flock of Laughing Gulls at Panama Viejo. Also one at Costa del Este.

American Herring Gull  Larus smithsonianus  Two 1st winters (2cys) in the large flock of Laughing Gulls at Panama Viejo. Also one at Costa del Este.

Lesser Black-backed Gull  Larus fuscus (P)  An adult in the large flock of Laughing Gulls at Panama Viejo [graellsii].

Royal Tern  Thalasseus maximus 

Cabot’s Tern  Thalasseus acuflavidus  [nominate].

Elegant Tern  Thalasseus elegans  One on the beach at Juan Hombron, southeast of Anton.

Wood Stork  Mycteria americana 

Magnificent Frigatebird  Fregata magnificens  [rothschildi].

Brown Booby  Sula leucogaster  Five seen on the way back from Coiba Island [etesiaca].

Anhinga  Anhinga anhinga (P)  [leucogaster]. 

Neotropic Cormorant  Nannopterum brasilianum  Including an extremely pale and confusing 2cy at Panama Viejo [nominate].

American White Ibis  Eudocimus albus  [nominate].

Glossy Ibis  Plegadis falcinellus 

Roseate Spoonbill  Platalea ajaja 

Rufescent Tiger Heron  Tigrisoma lineatum (P)  [nominate].

Bare-throated Tiger Heron  Tigrisoma mexicanum  Great views of a couple on Coiba Island.

Yellow-crowned Night Heron  Nyctanassa violacea  [caliginis]. 

Green Heron  Butorides virescens  [nominate].

Western Cattle Egret  Bubulcus ibis 

Great Blue Heron  Ardea herodias  [nominate].

Cocoi Heron (White-necked H)  Ardea cocoi 

Great Egret (American G E)  Ardea [alba] egretta 

Tricolored Heron  Egretta tricolor  [ruficollis]. 

Little Blue Heron  Egretta caerulea 

Snowy Egret  Egretta thula  [nominate].

Brown Pelican  Pelecanus occidentalis  [nominate].

King Vulture  Sarcoramphus papa  One circling at the ranger station on Coiba Island.

Black Vulture  Coragyps atratus 

Turkey Vulture  Cathartes aura 

Lesser Yellow-headed Vulture  Cathartes burrovianus  [nominate].

Osprey (American O)  Pandion [haliaetus] carolinensis 

White-tailed Kite  Elanus leucurus  [nominate].

Pearl Kite  Gampsonyx swainsonii  [leonae]. 

Swallow-tailed Kite  Elanoides forficatus  A few seen at Nusagandi.

Ornate Hawk-Eagle  Spizaetus ornatus  A circling adult along the Fortuna Road was a nice surprise [vicarius]!

Double-toothed Kite  Harpagus bidentatus  One seen as we were leaving Nusagandi [fasciatus].

Northern Harrier  Circus hudsonius  One seen along the road to Juan Hombron, southeast of Anton.

Crane Hawk  Geranospiza caerulescens (P)  Nice views of a couple around Panama City [nigra].

Plumbeous Hawk ◊  Cryptoleucopteryx plumbea  A wet and bedraggled individual seen at close range along the stream at Nusagandi.

Common Black Hawk (Mangrove B H)  Buteogallus anthracinus  Great views of a pair at the ranger station on Coiba Island [bangsi].

Savanna Hawk  Buteogallus meridionalis  One seen along the road to Juan Hombron, southeast of Anton.

Roadside Hawk  Rupornis magnirostris  [petulans]. 

White Hawk  Pseudastur albicollis  Good views of a couple along the Fortuna Road [costaricensis].

Grey-lined Hawk  Buteo nitidus  One seen along the road to Juan Hombron, southeast of Anton [blakei].

Broad-winged Hawk  Buteo platypterus  [nominate].

Short-tailed Hawk  Buteo brachyurus  [fuliginosus]. 

Zone-tailed Hawk  Buteo albonotatus  One seen along the road to Juan Hombron, southeast of Anton.

Red-tailed Hawk  Buteo jamaicensis  A few seen in the highlands [costaricensis].

Costa Rican Pygmy Owl ◊  Glaucidium costaricanum  Great views of two brown morphs at the start of the Sendero Quetzales, in Volcan Baru NP, and an amazing plain rufous morph bird at Los Nubes, near to Cerro Punta.

Ferruginous Pygmy Owl  Glaucidium brasilianum  A couple in Santa Catalina [ridgwayi].

Choco Screech Owl ◊  Megascops centralis  Heard only, despite much effort, at Nusagandi.

Mottled Owl  Strix virgata  Great views of one in broad daylight at Omar Torrijos NP, above El Cope [centralis].

Resplendent Quetzal ◊  Pharomachrus mocinno  A young male on the way up to the start of the Sendero Quetzales, in Volcan Baru NP, and a couple of flyover female types at Los Nubes, near to Cerro Punta [costaricensis].

Lattice-tailed Trogon ◊  Trogon clathratus  Great views of one or two females on the Fortuna Road, and then brilliant views of a male at Omar Torrijos NP, above El Cope.

Slaty-tailed Trogon  Trogon massena (P)  [hoffmanni]. 

Black-tailed Trogon  Trogon melanurus (P)  Seen by some of the group.

Gartered Trogon  Trogon caligatus  A male seen at Nusagandi [concinnus].

Black-throated Trogon  Trogon rufus  [tenellus]. 

Collared Trogon ◊ (Orange-bellied T)  Trogon [collaris] aurantiiventris  Very nice ‘Orange-bellied’ birds, including a pair at the start of the Sendero Quetzales, in Volcan Baru NP.

Green Kingfisher  Chloroceryle americana  One at the ranger station on Coiba Island [septentrionalis].

Whooping Motmot  Momotus subrufescens (P)  [nominate].

Rufous Motmot  Baryphthengus martii  [semirufus]. 

Broad-billed Motmot  Electron platyrhynchum (P)  Including great views at the Rainforest Discovery Centre, Pipeline Road [minus].

Rufous-tailed Jacamar  Galbula ruficauda  Heard only [melanogenia]. 

Black-breasted Puffbird ◊  Notharchus pectoralis (P)  Brilliant views from the tower at the Rainforest Discovery Centre, Pipeline Road.

White-whiskered Puffbird  Malacoptila panamensis  (P) Great views at the Rainforest Discovery Centre, Pipeline Road [nominate].

Spot-crowned Barbet ◊  Capito maculicoronatus  One in a fruiting tree at Omar Torrijos NP, above El Cope [nominate].

Prong-billed Barbet ◊  Semnornis frantzii  A few seen well in the highlands, the first at Los Nubes, near to Cerro Punta.

Collared Aracari  Pteroglossus torquatus  [nominate].

Fiery-billed Aracari ◊  Pteroglossus frantzii  Non leader.

Yellow-eared Toucanet ◊  Selenidera spectabilis  Great views of a pair at Omar Torrijos NP, above El Cope. Also one seen at Nusagandi.

Keel-billed Toucan  Ramphastos sulfuratus  [brevicarinatus]. 

Yellow-throated Toucan (Chestnut-mandibled T)  Ramphastos [ambiguus] swainsonii 

Olivaceous Piculet  Picumnus olivaceus  [flavotinctus].

Acorn Woodpecker  Melanerpes formicivorus  [striatipectus]. 

Black-cheeked Woodpecker  Melanerpes pucherani 

Red-crowned Woodpecker  Melanerpes rubricapillus  Most seen were nominate. A few along the Sendero Los Pozos on Coiba Island were the endemic subspecies subfusculus.

Smoky-brown Woodpecker  Leuconotopicus fumigatus  Heard only.

Hairy Woodpecker  Leuconotopicus villosus  Including great views at Los Nubes, near to Cerro Punta [extimus].

Stripe-cheeked Woodpecker ◊  Piculus callopterus  Brilliant views of a male along the road at Nusagandi.

Cinnamon Woodpecker  Celeus loricatus (P)  Great views from the tower at the Rainforest Discovery Centre, Pipeline Road [mentalis].

Lineated Woodpecker  Dryocopus lineatus (P) Heard only [nominate].

Crimson-crested Woodpecker  Campephilus melanoleucos  [malherbii]. 

Crested Caracara (Northern C C)  Caracara [plancus] cheriway 

Yellow-headed Caracara  Milvago chimachima  [cordata]. 

Laughing Falcon  Herpetotheres cachinnans  A couple seen very well [nominate].

American Kestrel  Falco sparverius  [nominate].

Blue-fronted Parrotlet ◊  Touit dilectissimus  Heard only.

Orange-chinned Parakeet  Brotogeris jugularis  [nominate].

Brown-hooded Parrot ◊  Pyrilia haematotis  (P)  Heard only.

Blue-headed Parrot  Pionus menstruus  [rubrigularis].

Red-lored Amazon  Amazona autumnalis  Including an orange-fronted hybrid at Playa Las Lajas [salvini].

Mealy Amazon (Southern M A)  Amazona [farinosa] farinosa 

Sulphur-winged Parakeet ◊  Pyrrhura hoffmanni  Flyovers only, at Los Nubes, near to Cerro Punta and along the Fortuna Road [gaudens].

Brown-throated Parakeet  Eupsittula pertinax  [ocularis]. 

Scarlet Macaw  Ara macao  Great views of a few at the ranger station on Coiba Island [macao].

Sapayoa ◊  Sapayoa aenigma  Two along the stream at Nusagandi on our first visit, and brilliant views of three there the following day.

Olivaceous Woodcreeper  Sittasomus griseicapillus  [sylvioides]. 

Plain-brown Woodcreeper  Dendrocincla fuliginosa  Plenty seen, including attending the antswarm [ridgwayi].

Wedge-billed Woodcreeper  Glyphorynchus spirurus  Two forms: pectoralis in the west; subrufescens at Nusagandi.

Cocoa Woodcreeper  Xiphorhynchus susurrans (P)  [marginatus]. 

Black-striped Woodcreeper  Xiphorhynchus lachrymosus  Good views of one at Nusagandi [nominate].

Spotted Woodcreeper  Xiphorhynchus erythropygius  A few seen, the first at La Mesa, above El Valle [punctigula].

Straight-billed Woodcreeper  Dendroplex picus  One seen at Costa del Este in Panama City [extimus].

Brown-billed Scythebill ◊  Campylorhamphus pusillus  Brilliant views of one at Cerro Colorado [borealis].

Spot-crowned Woodcreeper  Lepidocolaptes affinis  A few seen well in the Western Highlands around Cerro Punta [neglectus].

Plain Xenops  Xenops genibarbis  [ridgwayi]. 

Buffy Tuftedcheek ◊  Pseudocolaptes lawrencii  Best views were at Los Nubes, near to Cerro Punta.

Lineated Foliage-gleaner  Syndactyla subalaris  One seen well in the upper forest along the Fortuna Road [lineata].

Streak-breasted Treehunter ◊  Thripadectes rufobrunneus  Excellent views of a pair at Los Nubes, near to Cerro Punta.

Fawn-throated Foliage-gleaner ◊  Automolus cervinigularis  One seen well along the Fortuna Road. Now split from Buff-throated Foliage-gleaner [hypophaeus].

Chiriqui Foliage-gleaner ◊  Automolus exsertus  One seen at Lagunas Volcan, near to Volcan. Others heard there.

Ruddy Treerunner ◊  Margarornis rubiginosus  A few seen well in the highlands [nominate].

Coiba Spinetail ◊  Cranioleuca dissita  Brilliant views of two or three pairs along the Sendero Los Pozos on Coiba Island. Very distinct.

Red-faced Spinetail  Cranioleuca erythrops  [rufigenis].

Slaty Spinetail  Synallaxis brachyura  Heard only [nigrifumosa].

Pale-breasted Spinetail  Synallaxis albescens  [latitabunda]. 

Dot-winged Antwren  Microrhopias quixensis  (P) [boucardi-group].

Checker-throated Stipplethroat ◊  Epinecrophylla fulviventris  Great views of several, especially at the Rainforest Discovery Centre, Pipeline Road.

Moustached Antwren  Myrmotherula ignota (P)  Great views from both the tower and in the car park at the Rainforest Discovery Centre, Pipeline Road [nominate].

White-flanked Antwren  Myrmotherula axillaris  [albigula].

Slaty Antwren  Myrmotherula schisticolor (P)  [nominate].

Plain Antvireo  Dysithamnus mentalis  [septentrionalis]. 

Spot-crowned Antvireo ◊  Dysithamnus puncticeps  Great views by the car park at the Rainforest Discovery Centre, Pipeline Road. Also, excellent views of a pair at Nusagandi.

Barred Antshrike  Thamnophilus doliatus  Two forms: nigricristatus on the mainland; endemic eremnus on Coiba Island.

Black-crowned Antshrike  Thamnophilus atrinucha  [nominate].

Fasciated Antshrike  Cymbilaimus lineatus  (P)  [fasciatus].

Speckled Antshrike ◊  Xenornis setifrons  Brilliant views of a pair along the stream at Nusagandi, on the second attempt.

Ocellated Antbird ◊  Phaenostictus mcleannani (P)  A couple seen by the turn to the Rainforest Discovery Centre, Pipeline Road.

Bicolored Antbird  Gymnopithys bicolor  Two forms seen well: nominate in the east, and olivascens in the east.

Dusky Antbird  Cercomacroides tyrannina (P)

Spotted Antbird  Hylophylax naevioides (P)  An elusive singing individual seen at La Mesa, above El Valle.

Chestnut-backed Antbird  Poliocrania exsul  First seen at La Mesa, above El Valle [exsul-group]. Subspecies niglarus at Nusagandi.

Dull-mantled Antbird ◊  Sipia laemosticta  Great views of a couple the Fortuna Road.

White-bellied Antbird  Myrmeciza longipes (P)  [panamensis]. 

Zeledon’s Antbird ◊  Hafferia zeledoni  A couple seen and others heard along the Fortuna Road [nominate].

Black-faced Antthrush  Formicarius analis  First seen along the Pipeline Road, also seen well at La Mesa, above El Valle [hoffmanni-group].

Streak-chested Antpitta ◊  Hylopezus perspicillatus  Heard along the Pipeline Road, then brilliant views of one at La Mesa, above El Valle [perspicillatus].

Black-crowned Antpitta ◊  Pittasoma michleri  Excellent views of one at Nusagandi [nominate].

Silvery-fronted Tapaculo ◊  Scytalopus argentifrons  Two forms seen: argentifrons and chiriquensis.

White-fronted Tyrannulet (Zeledon’s T)  Phyllomyias [zeledoni] zeledoni  Great views of one on the way up to the start of the Sendero Quetzales, in Volcan Baru NP.

Yellow-crowned Tyrannulet  Tyrannulus elatus 

Forest Elaenia  Myiopagis gaimardii  [macilvainii]. 

Greenish Elaenia  Myiopagis viridicata (P)  [accola]. 

Yellow-bellied Elaenia  Elaenia flavogaster  Two forms: pallididorsalis on the mainland; subpagana on Coiba Island.

Lesser Elaenia  Elaenia chiriquensis  Including one seen on Coiba Island [nominate].

Mountain Elaenia  Elaenia frantzii  [nominate].

Brown-capped Tyrannulet  Ornithion brunneicapillus (P).

Southern Beardless Tyrannulet  Camptostoma obsoletum  [flaviventre].

Northern Mouse-colored Tyrannulet  Nesotriccus incomtus  One seen well along the road to Juan Hombron, southeast of Anton [eremonomus]. Note the recent split.

Yellow Tyrannulet  Capsiempis flaveola (P)  Good views of a pair at the Summit Rainforest Resort [semiflava].

Mistletoe Tyrannulet  Zimmerius parvus 

Panama Tyrannulet ◊ (Yellow-green T)  Phylloscartes flavovirens (P)  Great views of responsive pair at Camino de Cruces NP. Seen well, heard singing and distinctive!

Olive-striped Flycatcher  Mionectes galbinus  Seen at Nusagandi [hederaceus].

Ochre-bellied Flycatcher  Mionectes oleagineus   Two forms noted, assimilis (west) and parcus (east).

Sepia-capped Flycatcher  Leptopogon amaurocephalus  Non leader. The endemic idius was seen on Coiba Island by some of the group. 

Slaty-capped Flycatcher  Leptopogon superciliaris  [nominate].

Northern Scrub Flycatcher  Sublegatus arenarum  One seen along the Sendero Los Pozos on Coiba Island. A couple of others seen well too [nominate].

Black-capped Pygmy Tyrant  Myiornis atricapillus (P)  Heard only.

Southern Bentbill  Oncostoma olivaceum  Brilliant views of one at the Rainforest Discovery Centre, Pipeline Road. Heard at Nusagandi.

Scale-crested Pygmy Tyrant  Lophotriccus pileatus  [luteiventris].

Pale-eyed Pygmy Tyrant  Atalotriccus pilaris  One seen along the road to Juan Hombron, southeast of Anton [wilcoxi].

Slaty-headed Tody-Flycatcher  Poecilotriccus sylvia  [schistaceiceps]. 

Common Tody-Flycatcher  Todirostrum cinereum  [wetmorei]. 

Black-headed Tody-Flycatcher  Todirostrum nigriceps  Heard only (P).

Western Olivaceous Flatbill  Rhynchocyclus aequinoctialis (P)  Note the recent split [bardus].

Yellow-olive Flatbill  Tolmomyias sulphurescens  [flavoolivaceus]. 

Yellow-winged Flatbill  Tolmomyias flavotectus  Note the English name change.

White-throated Spadebill  Platyrinchus mystaceus  Good views of one at Lagunas Volcan, near to Volcan [neglectus].

Black Phoebe  Sayornis nigricans  [amnicola].

Northern Tufted Flycatcher  Mitrephanes phaeocercus  [aurantiiventris]. 

Ochraceous Pewee ◊  Contopus ochraceus  Heard only, despite much effort.

Yellow-bellied Flycatcher  Empidonax flaviventris 

Acadian Flycatcher  Empidonax virescens 

Yellowish Flycatcher ◊  Empidonax flavescens  A few seen well in the Western Highlands [nominate].

Black-capped Flycatcher ◊  Empidonax atriceps  Great views at Los Nubes, near to Cerro Punta.

Piratic Flycatcher  Legatus leucophaius  [nominate].

Rusty-margined Flycatcher  Myiozetetes cayanensis (P)  [hellmayri]. 

Social Flycatcher  Myiozetetes similis  [columbianus]. 

Grey-capped Flycatcher  Myiozetetes granadensis  One seen low down along the Fortuna Road [nominate].

Great Kiskadee  Pitangus sulphuratus  [guatimalensis]. 

Lesser Kiskadee  Philohydor lictor (P)  [panamensis]. 

Golden-bellied Flycatcher  Myiodynastes hemichrysus  views of a pair on the upper part of the Fortuna Road. Note the reorganisation of this species and Golden-crowned Flycatcher [nominate].

Streaked Flycatcher  Myiodynastes maculatus  [difficilis].

Boat-billed Flycatcher  Megarynchus pitangua  [mexicanus]. 

Tropical Kingbird  Tyrannus melancholicus  [satrapa]. 

Fork-tailed Flycatcher  Tyrannus savana  [monachus]. 

Rufous Mourner  Rhytipterna holerythra  Non leader.

Dusky-capped Flycatcher  Myiarchus tuberculifer  [nigricapillus]. 

Panama Flycatcher ◊  Myiarchus panamensis  A few seen, at the beginning of the pipeline road and great looks on Coiba Island [nominate].

Great Crested Flycatcher  Myiarchus crinitus  Non leader.

Bright-rumped Attila  Attila spadiceus  [flammulatus-group].

Purple-throated Fruitcrow ◊  Querula purpurata (P)  A couple seen well along the Pipeline Road.

Rufous Piha  Lipaugus unirufus  Heard at Nusagandi [nominate].

Blue Cotinga ◊  Cotinga nattererii (P)  A couple of males and a female seen from the tower at the Rainforest Discovery Centre, Pipeline Road.

Lance-tailed Manakin  Chiroxiphia lanceolata  Great views of a few along the Sendero Los Pozos and at the ranger station on Coiba Island.

White-ruffed Manakin  Corapipo altera  A male seen well near to Volcan, and a few in a fruiting tree at Omar Torrijos NP, above El Cope [nominate].

Choco Manakin ◊  Cryptopipo litae  Excellent views of a rather dull individual along the stream at Nusagandi [suffusa].

Velvety Manakin ◊  Lepidothrix velutina  Two forms: great views of lekking birds at Birder’s Paradise near Volcan [nominate], and also seen at Nusagandi [minuscula].

Golden-collared Manakin ◊  Manacus vitellinus  [nominate].

Orange-collared Manakin ◊  Manacus aurantiacus  Great views of lekking birds at Birder’s Paradise, near Volcan.

Red-capped Manakin  Ceratopipra mentalis  A male seen well at Nusagandi [ignifera].

Sulphur-rumped Myiobius  Myiobius sulphureipygius  [aureatus]. 

Ruddy-tailed Flycatcher  Terenotriccus erythrurus [fulvigularis]. 

Masked Tityra  Tityra semifasciata  [costaricensis]. 

Northern Schiffornis ◊  Schiffornis veraepacis  Brilliant views of one at Omar Torrijos NP, above El Cope [dumicola].

Barred Becard  Pachyramphus versicolor  Nice views of a few in the Western Highlands [costaricensis].

Cinnamon Becard  Pachyramphus cinnamomeus  [nominate]. 

Rufous-browed Peppershrike  Cyclarhis gujanensis Two forms: subflavescens heard on the mainland; endemic coibae seen on Coiba Island.

Green Shrike-vireo ◊  Vireolanius pulchellus  Excellent views of a singing bird in Metropolitan Park, Panama City. A few others heard [viridiceps].

Scrub Greenlet  Hylophilus flavipes  Two forms: viridiflavus seen on the extension; endemic xuthus seen on Coiba Island.

Lesser Greenlet  Pachysylvia decurtata  [nominate].

Golden-fronted Greenlet  Pachysylvia aurantiifrons (P)  [nominate].

Yellow-green Vireo  Vireo flavoviridis 

Philadelphia Vireo  Vireo philadelphicus  Heard only.

Brown-capped Vireo  Vireo leucophrys

Yellow-throated Vireo  Vireo flavifrons (P).

Yellow-winged Vireo ◊  Vireo carmioli  Seen well at the start of the Sendero Quetzales, in Volcan Baru NP.

Black-chested Jay  Cyanocorax affinis  [zeledoni].

Black-and-yellow Phainoptila ◊  Phainoptila melanoxantha  A few seen well in the Western Highlands, the best views at Los Nubes, near to Cerro Punta [nominate].

Long-tailed Silky-flycatcher ◊  Ptiliogonys caudatus  Several seen well in the highlands around Cerro Punta.

Mangrove Swallow  Tachycineta albilinea 

Blue-and-white Swallow  Pygochelidon cyanoleuca  [nominate].

Southern Rough-winged Swallow  Stelgidopteryx ruficollis (P)  [uropygialis]. 

Grey-breasted Martin  Progne chalybea  [nominate].

Barn Swallow (American B S)  Hirundo [rustica] erythrogaster 

American Cliff Swallow  Petrochelidon pyrrhonota  Good views of a couple near the beach at Juan Hombron, southeast of Anton [pyrrhonota-group].

Band-backed Wren  Campylorhynchus zonatus  One seen high up along the Fortuna Road [costaricensis].

Black-bellied Wren  Pheugopedius fasciatoventris (P)  [albigularis]. 

Rufous-breasted Wren  Pheugopedius rutilus  [hyperythrus]. 

Rufous-and-white Wren  Thryophilus rufalbus (P)  [castanonotus].

Isthmian Wren ◊  Cantorchilus elutus 

Buff-breasted Wren  Cantorchilus leucotis (P)  [galbraithii]. 

Riverside Wren ◊  Cantorchilus semibadius  Heard only.

Bay Wren  Cantorchilus nigricapillus  Two forms: costaricensis in the west; castaneus seen at Nusagandi.

Stripe-throated Wren ◊  Cantorchilus leucopogon  Heard only, at Nusagandi.

House Wren  Troglodytes aedon  Two forms: inquietus seen on the mainland; endemic carychrous seen on Coiba Island.

Ochraceous Wren ◊  Troglodytes ochraceus  Several seen well in the Western Highlands [nominate].

White-breasted Wood Wren  Henicorhina leucosticta  Seen very well at La Mesa, above El Valle [pittieri].

Grey-breasted Wood Wren  Henicorhina leucophrys  [collina].

Southern Nightingale-Wren (Scaly-breasted W)  Microcerculus marginatus  Good views of one on the ground around ants at La Mesa, above El Valle. Others heard [luscinia].

Song Wren  Cyphorhinus phaeocephalus  Good views of a couple on the ground at La Mesa, above El Valle. Also seen very well at Nusagandi [lawrencii].

Trilling Gnatwren  Ramphocaenus melanurus 

Tawny-faced Gnatwren  Microbates cinereiventris  Best was the one on the first visit to La Mesa, above El Valle [nominate].

White-browed Gnatcatcher  Polioptila bilineata  Two forms: superciliaris seen on the mainland; endemic cinericia seen on Coiba Island.

Tropical Mockingbird  Mimus gilvus  [tolimensis].

Black-faced Solitaire ◊  Myadestes melanops  A brief view of one at Cerro Colorado. Others heard.

Orange-billed Nightingale-Thrush  Catharus aurantiirostris  Heard only [griseiceps].

Black-billed Nightingale-Thrush ◊  Catharus gracilirostris  Excellent views at the Tamandua Reserve above the Cabanas Quetzales, Cerro Punta [accentor].

Ruddy-capped Nightingale-Thrush ◊  Catharus frantzii  Excellent views of a couple at Los Nubes, near to Cerro Punta [wetmorei].

Mountain Thrush ◊  Turdus plebejus  Common in the Western Highlands [nominate].

White-throated Thrush  Turdus assimilis  [cnephosus]. 

Clay-colored Thrush  Turdus grayi  [casius]. 

House Sparrow (introduced)  Passer domesticus  [nominate].

Yellow-bellied Siskin  Spinus xanthogastrus  [nominate]. 

Elegant Euphonia  Chlorophonia elegantissima  Heard only [vincens].

Golden-browed Chlorophonia ◊  Chlorophonia callophrys  One briefly at Cerro Colorado.

Yellow-crowned Euphonia  Euphonia luteicapilla 

Thick-billed Euphonia  Euphonia laniirostris  [crassirostris]. 

Spot-crowned Euphonia ◊  Euphonia imitans  Great views on the bananas at Birder’s Paradise, near Volcan.

Tawny-capped Euphonia  Euphonia anneae  Several seen well [anneae].

Rosy Thrush-tanager  Rhodinocichla rosea (P)  Great views of a male in Metropolitan Park, Panama City.

Yellow-throated Chlorospingus ◊ (Drab-breasted C)  Chlorospingus [flavigularis] hypophaeus  Several seen along the Fortuna Road. A distinctive, drab form, which may well end up split.

Sooty-capped Chlorospingus ◊  Chlorospingus pileatus  Fairly common in the Western Highlands, where first seen at the start of the Sendero Quetzales, in Volcan Baru NP.

Common Chlorospingus  Chlorospingus flavopectus  Quite common in the Western Highlands [regionalis]. The darker headed form punctulatus was common at Cerro Colorado.

Black-striped Sparrow  Arremonops conirostris  Heard only on the mainland [striaticeps]. The endemic viridicatus was seen well on Coiba Island.

Costa Rican Brushfinch ◊  Arremon costaricensis  Good views of a few at Lagunas Volcan, near to Volcan.

Orange-billed Sparrow  Arremon aurantiirostris  A few seen well, the first at Lagunas Volcan, near to Volcan [aurantiirostris].

Chestnut-capped Brushfinch  Arremon brunneinucha  [elsae].

Rufous-collared Sparrow  Zonotrichia capensis  [costaricensis].

Large-footed Finch ◊  Pezopetes capitalis  Seen well at the Tamandua Reserve above the Cabanas Quetzales, Cerro Punta.

White-naped Brushfinch  Atlapetes albinucha  A pair seen at Cerro Colorado [brunnescens].

Yellow-thighed Brushfinch ◊  Atlapetes tibialis  A few seen well in the highlands around Cerro Punta.

Yellow-green Brushfinch ◊  Atlapetes luteoviridis  Great views of 2 or 3 pairs in the grim weather at Cerro Colorado.

Wrenthrush ◊  Zeledonia coronata  A few heard and seen briefly in the highlands around Cerro Punta and then brilliant views of a pair at the Tamandua Reserve above the Cabanas Quetzales, Cerro Punta.

Eastern Meadowlark  Sturnella magna  [subulata]. 

Yellow-billed Cacique  Amblycercus holosericeus  Heard only [holosericeus]. 

Chestnut-headed Oropendola  Psarocolius wagleri  [ridgwayi]. 

Crested Oropendola  Psarocolius decumanus  [melanterus]. 

Yellow-rumped Cacique  Cacicus cela (P)  [vitellinus]. 

Scarlet-rumped Cacique  Cacicus microrhynchus  [nominate].

Yellow-backed Oriole  Icterus chrysater (P)  [giraudii]. 

Baltimore Oriole  Icterus galbula 

Yellow-tailed Oriole  Icterus mesomelas (P)  Just one seen at the start of the Pipeline Road [carrikeri].

Giant Cowbird  Molothrus oryzivorus (P)   

Shiny Cowbird  Molothrus bonariensis  [cabanisii]. 

Great-tailed Grackle  Quiscalus mexicanus  [peruvianus]. 

Northern Waterthrush  Parkesia noveboracensis 

Golden-winged Warbler  Vermivora chrysoptera  A couple of males seen well. Smart birds.

Black-and-white Warbler  Mniotilta varia 

Prothonotary Warbler  Protonotaria citrea 

Flame-throated Warbler ◊  Oreothlypis gutturalis  Several seen in the highlands around Cerro Punta.

Tennessee Warbler  Leiothlypis peregrina 

Chiriqui Yellowthroat ◊  Geothlypis chiriquensis  Excellent views of a male near to Volcan.

Olive-crowned Yellowthroat  Geothlypis semiflava  Heard only [bairdi]. 

American Redstart  Setophaga ruticilla  One seen on Coiba Island.

Tropical Parula  Setophaga pitiayumi  [inornata]. 

Magnolia Warbler  Setophaga magnolia  A couple seen at the Summit Rainforest Resort.

Bay-breasted Warbler  Setophaga castanea 

Blackburnian Warbler  Setophaga fusca 

American Yellow Warbler  Setophaga aestiva 

Mangrove Warbler  Setophaga petechia  [erithachorides]. 

Chestnut-sided Warbler  Setophaga pensylvanica 

Myrtle Warbler  Setophaga coronata 

Black-throated Green Warbler  Setophaga virens 

Buff-rumped Warbler  Myiothlypis fulvicauda  [veraguensis]. 

Chestnut-capped Warbler  Basileuterus delattrii  Two forms: mesochrysus seen on the mainland; endemic actuosus seen on Coiba Island.

Black-cheeked Warbler ◊  Basileuterus melanogenys  Several seen in the highlands around Cerro Punta [eximius].

Golden-crowned Warbler  Basileuterus culicivorus  [godmani].

Black-eared Warbler ◊  Basileuterus melanotis  A pair seen high up along the Fortuna Road.

Canada Warbler  Cardellina canadensis  One seen at La Mesa, above El Valle.

Wilson’s Warbler  Cardellina pusilla 

Slate-throated Whitestart  Myioborus miniatus  [ballux]. 

Collared Whitestart  Myioborus torquatus  Common in the Western Highlands.

Dusky-faced Tanager  Mitrospingus cassinii  Two forms: costaricensis in the west; nominate in the east.

Flame-colored Tanager ◊  Piranga bidentata  A male at Los Quetzales Lodge in Barrio Guadalupe [citrea].

Tooth-billed Tanager  Piranga lutea  [testacea]. 

Summer Tanager  Piranga rubra  [nominate].

White-winged Tanager  Piranga leucoptera  [latifasciata]. 

Red-crowned Ant Tanager  Habia rubica  Nice views at Lagunas Volcan, near to Volcan [vinacea].

Red-throated Ant Tanager  Habia fuscicauda  Several seen well, including a male to the fruit feeders at the Summit Rainforest Resort [willisi].Also seen in the west [nominate].

Carmiol’s Tanager ◊  Chlorothraupis carmioli  Seen at Nusagandi [lutescens].

Black-thighed Grosbeak ◊  Pheucticus tibialis  A male seen on the way to the start of the Sendero Quetzales, in Volcan Baru NP. Another briefly at Los Nubes, near to Cerro Punta.

Rose-breasted Grosbeak  Pheucticus ludovicianus 

Blue-black Grosbeak  Cyanoloxia cyanoides  One briefly in the car park of the Rainforest Discovery Centre, Pipeline Road [nominate].

Painted Bunting  Passerina ciris  Non leader [pallidior].

Green Honeycreeper  Chlorophanes spiza  [argutus]. 

Black-and-yellow Tanager ◊  Chrysothlypis chrysomelas  A few seen well, including a fine male, at Omar Torrijos NP, above El Cope [nominate].

Sulphur-rumped Tanager ◊  Heterospingus rubrifrons  Excellent views of several at Nusagandi.

Red-legged Honeycreeper  Cyanerpes cyaneus  [carneipes].

Shining Honeycreeper ◊  Cyanerpes lucidus  Great views at Nusagandi [isthmicus].

Scarlet-thighed Dacnis ◊  Dacnis venusta  Two forms: nominate in the west; fuliginata at Nusagandi.

Blue Dacnis  Dacnis cayana  [ultramarina]. 

Streaked Saltator  Saltator striatipectus  Two forms: furax seen on the mainland; endemic scotinus seen on Coiba Island.

Buff-throated Saltator  Saltator maximus  Two forms: intermedius in the west; iungens at Nusagandi.

Bananaquit  Coereba flaveola  [mexicana].

Yellow-faced Grassquit  Tiaris olivaceus Two forms: pusillus seen on the mainland; endemic ravidus seen on Coiba Island. The latter a distinctive subspecies, with very dark underparts.

Blue-black Grassquit  Volatinia jacarina  [splendens]. 

Grey-headed Tanager  Eucometis penicillata  Two forms: stictothorax in the west; cristata in the east.

White-shouldered Tanager  Loriotus luctuosus  Two forms: nitidissimus in the west; panamensis in the east.

Tawny-crested Tanager  Tachyphonus delatrii 

White-lined Tanager  Tachyphonus rufus 

Crimson-collared Tanager ◊  Ramphocelus sanguinolentus  A few seen well along the Fortuna Road [apricus].

Scarlet-rumped Tanager (Passerini’s T)  Ramphocelus [passerinii] passerinii  Caribbean slope.

Scarlet-rumped Tanager (Cherrie’s T)  Ramphocelus [passerinii] costaricensis  Pacific slope.

Crimson-backed Tanager  Ramphocelus dimidiatus  Two forms: nominate seen on the mainland; endemic arestus seen on Coiba Island

Morelet’s Seedeater  Sporophila morelleti  A few seen at Playa Las Lajas [nominate].

Variable Seedeater  Sporophila corvina  Two forms: hoffmanni in the west; hicksii in the east.

Yellow-bellied Seedeater  Sporophila nigricollis (P)  [nominate].

Thick-billed Seed Finch  Sporophila funerea 

Ruddy-breasted Seedeater  Sporophila minuta  A few seen along the road to Juan Hombron, southeast of Anton [centralis].

Saffron Finch  Sicalis flaveola 

Slaty Flowerpiercer ◊  Diglossa plumbea  Common in the Western Highlands.

Speckled Tanager  Ixothraupis guttata  [eusticta]. 

Blue-grey Tanager  Thraupis episcopus  [cana].

Palm Tanager  Thraupis palmarum  [atripennis]. 

Golden-hooded Tanager Stilpnia larvata  Several seen well around Panama City [fanny] and seen in the west [franciscae].

Spangle-cheeked Tanager ◊  Tangara dowii  Several seen well at Cerro Colorado.

Bay-headed Tanager  Tangara gyrola  Two forms: bangsi in the west; deleticia in the east.

Rufous-winged Tanager ◊  Tangara lavinia  Great views of a smart male at Nusagandi [nominate].

Emerald Tanager ◊  Tangara florida  Good views of several along the Fortuna Road.

Silver-throated Tanager  Tangara icterocephala  [frantzii].

Plain-colored Tanager  Tangara inornata  Two forms: rava in the west; languens in the east


Brown-throated Sloth (B-t Three-toed S)  Bradypus variegatus (P)

White-nosed Coati  Nasua narica (P)

Neotropical Otter  Lontra longicaudis  A surprise in the wetlands at Los Lajas.

Panamanian White-faced Capuchin  Cebus imitator  The endemic form on Coiba Island.

Panamanian Night Monkey  Aotus zonalis (P)

Mantled Howler Monkey  Alouatta palliata  Including the endemic form on Coiba Island.

Central American Agouti  Dasyprocta punctata

Central American Dwarf Squirrel (Alfaro’s Pygmy S)  Microsciurus alfari

Red-tailed Squirrel  Sciurus granatensis

Variegated Squirrel  Sciurus variegatoides