27 October - 8 / 10 November 2022

by Hannu Jännes

Birdquest’s thirteenth tour of Oman & Bahrain proved to be a great success for many reasons. We recorded a respectable total of 230 taxa and 51 Birdquest ‘diamond’ species (regional specialities) and saw several great migrants and interesting seabirds. Oman’s special owls have always been one of the highlights of the tour, and we were successful in finding the fairly recently Desert Owl, Arabian Scops Owl, Little Owl, Arabian Eagle-Owl (a recent split from Spotted Eagle-Owl) and Pharaoh Eagle-Owl, a new bird for this tour. A mix of Middle Eastern specialities and sought-after migrants encountered on the tour included Arabian and Sand Partridges, Socotra Cormorant, Persian and Flesh-footed Shearwaters, Jouanin’s Petrel, Masked and Brown Booby, Verreaux’s Eagle, Lappet-faced Vulture, Red-knobbed Coot, the critically endangered Sociable Lapwing, Crab-plover, Cream-coloured Courser, Broad-billed Sandpiper, Sooty Gull, Spotted, Lichtenstein’s, Crowned and Chestnut-bellied Sandgrouse, African Collared Dove, Bruce’s Green Pigeon, Forbes-Watson’s Swift, Sooty Falcon, two forms of Southern Grey Shrike, Fan-tailed Raven, Greater Hoopoe Lark, Black-crowned Sparrow-Lark, White-spectacled Bulbul, Streaked Scrub Warbler, Arabian, Asian Desert and Ménétries’s Warblers, Plain Leaf and Green Warblers, Abyssinian White-eye, Tristram’s Starling, Blackstart, Hume’s, Red-tailed & Arabian Wheatears, Nile Valley, Palestine and Arabian Sunbirds; Arabian Babbler, Rüppell’s Weaver, Yemen Serin, Arabian Golden-winged Grosbeak and Striolated Bunting. The African Openbill we found in Salalah was apparently only the second record for the country. The Kingdom of Bahrain weighed in again with a wonderful pre-roost gathering of 144 Grey Hypocolius and Persian Mourning Wheatear. Oman remains the safest country in the Middle East with stunning landscapes, a great road network, generally good food and accommodation throughout and a warm welcome for tourists. In Bahrain our wonderful host, Abdullah, made our stay a very special one as always.

The tour began in the morning at a hotel near Muscat airport, from where we headed straight to the shore of Gulf of Oman at Ras as Sawadi, a low-lying promontory just west of Muscat, and boarded two boats that took us around the small islets, where we had great views of two magnificent adult Sooty Falcons and their recently fledged offspring. Other birds noted during the boat trip included close Socotra Cormorants, adult and juvenile Peregrine Falcon, Western Reef Herons, several Striated Herons, including individuals of the very dark local colour morph together with quite standard ones. After checking the gulls, terns and waders on the beach and finding a Steppe Grey Shrike (now lumped back to Great Grey Shrike) further inland, we indulged in far too big lunch in a local restaurant. A late afternoon excursion to a nearby agricultural area yielded Grey Francolin, 80 Red-wattled Lapwings, a couple of Pallid Swifts, Eurasian Hoopoes and Indian Rollers, Delicate Prinia (a recent split from Graceful Prinia), Arabian Babbler, many colourful Blue-cheeked Bee-eaters and Arabian Bee-eaters (one of the three species that resulted from the recent Little Green Bee-eater split), two Black-winged Kites (a write-in), Indian Silverbills, Red-vented, White-spectacled and White-eared Bulbuls.

Very early the next morning we headed for the Al Hajar mountains and Wadi ’Mac’, home of the legendary Omani Owl, which unfortunately we couldn’t find this time. This wasn’t a completely unexpected result as both of our pre-tour visits to the same wadi on previous days had a similar outcome. We did, however, enjoy good views of a calling Pallid Scops Owl and, later in the morning, we had close encounter with a pair of Little Owls. At dawn we enjoyed a picnic breakfast in this beautiful, remote wadi, and then it was time to enjoy birding in the light after the long dark night. Birds seen included several Hume’s Wheatears (what a great song it has), Red-tailed Wheatear, Streaked Scrub Warbler (a must-see bird for family listers), Long-billed Pipit, Desert Lark, Menetries’s Warblers, a group of four Lichtenstein’s Sandgrouse, which we flushed from the bottom of the wadi, and couple of confiding Plain Leaf Warblers. After a rest at the hotel and a good lunch we headed for Jabal Akhdar at 2000m asl, arriving just before sunset. After dinner it was time for more owling in a big wadi, where we heard several Pallid Scops Owls and owl calls, unidentified at the time, emanating from the steep cliffs.

Next morning, we headed for the Sayiq plateau, where highlights included a total of five Lappet-faced Vultures, Egyptian Vultures, several Short-toed Snake Eagles, many Brown-necked Ravens, tens of eastern Black Redstarts, a very showy pair of Streaked Scrub Warblers, Pied, Hume’s and Red-tailed Wheatears and Ortolan Bunting. In the evening it was time for more owling and we heard the previous evening’s mystery owl realizing this time that the sounds must belong to a pair of Pharaoh Eagle Owls (a write-in). In addition, we found Red Fox, Arabian Golden Spiny Mouse and Desert Hedgehog during our nocturnal adventure.
Next morning, on the way to Bar Al Hickman we stopped at a site where we found the badly needed Striolated Bunting. We reached the wader paradise of the Bar Al Hickman in the afternoon and admired the hordes of wintering waders that come to feed on the shoreline as it is revealed by the receding tide. The obvious highlight of the wader show was Crab-plover, which was seen well. Other interesting species spotted amongst the hordes of feeding waders included Greater and Lesser Sand Plovers, Eurasian Whimbrel, Eurasian Curlew, Bar-tailed Godwit, Ruddy Turnstones, Broad-billed Sandpiper, Curlew Sandpiper, Sanderling, Dunlin, Little Stint and Terek Sandpiper. On the way back to Al Hij and our pleasant accommodation, we had a short stop for a roadside Greater Hoopoe Lark.
New morning saw us at Filim desalination plant, where the highlights included a very showy Plain Leaf Warbler and two Asian Desert Warblers, a new bird for us. The long drive to our next destination, Qitbit oasis, was interrupted by a couple of comfort stops, one of which resulted in a sighting of Shikra, a lunch break and a longer birding stop at the Al Ghaftayn oasis. This time the oasis was quite birdy and produced a male Asian Koel (always a good bird in Oman), Common Cuckoo, Wood Warbler, Common Chiffchaff, Green Warbler (another good find), Red-breasted Flycatcher and several Black Redstarts. At Qitbit oasis in the evening we watched a family party of Barn Owls that were flying around calling loudly.

The next day we visited Muntasar oasis, where, whilst waiting for the sandgrouse to arrive, we enjoyed views of an adult male Pallid Harrier, Daurian Shrike, a very brief Common Quail, European Turtle Doves, Citrine Wagtails and Tawny Pipits. Eventually the sandgrouse arrived, and we saw a total of 50 handsome Spotted Sandgrouse. Later we checked melon fields near Qitbit, where we found the only Bimaculated Lark of the trip. In the afternoon we drove to the truck-stop town of Thumrayt, gateway to Oman’s oil and gas fields, for a two-night stay.

Next on the agenda was a visit to Mudday, a small village situated ca 80 kms west of Thumrayt, where we spent the morning. Highlights here included Nile Valley Sunbird, several confiding Blackstarts, sizeable flocks of Chestnut bellied, and smaller numbers of Crowned Sandgrouse, a few African Collared and Namaqua Doves, Sand Partridges and a Rosy Starling. In the afternoon we checked another valley, where Red-tailed Shrike was a new bird for us.
The following day saw us at Shisr, a small village in the middle of the central desert, where cultivation of grass on a large scale has created a premier staging point for migrating and wintering birds. The highlight of our morning session here was a total of nine Sociable Plovers, a critically endangered species, which is never an easy bird to find in Oman. Another important find was a flock of 14 Cream-coloured Coursers. A supporting cast of interesting birds included many White Storks (a new bird for us), a single Collared Pratincole, Greater Spotted Eagles, Eurasian Hobby, several Greater Hoopoe Larks, many Desert and Isabelline Wheatears, Great Grey Shrikes (of the form aucheri), and Western Yellow Wagtails including the forms feldegg and thunbergi. On the way down to Salalah we paid a short visit to Wadi Dokah, a World Heritage site for the Incense Tree Boswellia serrata. In Salalah an afternoon visit to the magnificent East Khwar gave us an opportunity to get close-up views of a number of wetland species, many of which were new for the trip, including Garganey, Northern Pintail, Common Moorhen, Eurasian and Red-knobbed Coots, Little Grebe, Black-winged Stilt, Black-tailed Godwit, Red-necked Phalarope, Wood Sandpiper, Common Tern, Whiskered Tern, Glossy Ibis and Little Egret.

Our first full day in Salalah started before sunrise in a wadi, where we easily found our main target Arabian Scops Owl. Next stop was at another wadi, where our main target was the Arabian Golden-winged Grosbeak, perhaps the most wanted species in the whole of Dhofar area. This year it took some time to find this gem, but patience paid-off and in the end, we had great views of a bird that came to drink at a trough and then spent time sitting in a tree nearby giving great prolonged views for everyone to enjoy. In addition, Nick had another individual in the same area. Other important birds seen during the morning included many Forbes-Watson’s Swifts, Bruce’s Green Pigeon, Grey-headed Kingfisher, Black-crowned Tchagra, African Paradise Flycatcher, Graceful Prinia, Arabian Warbler, Abyssinian White-eye, Palestine Sunbird, Arabian Sunbird (a recent split from Shining Sunbird), Rüppell’’s Weaver, African Silverbill and many Cinnamon-breasted Buntings. After lunch and a siesta, we paid a short visit to East Khwar, where we added White-tailed Lapwing, Indian Pond Heron and Black-crowned Night Heron to our rapidly growing bird list. Our attempts to find an Arabian Eagle Owl at its day roost didn’t work out as the bird was not at home, but we stayed in the area till dark and managed to locate the calling bird and obtained good views.

Next morning found us at the harbour of Mirbat, where we boarded our boat for a pelagic excursion. During the morning our captain Hateem took us nearly 10 kilometres offshore stopping at regular intervals to chum. The sea was calm, and we enjoyed a great seabird experience with many Jouanin’s Petrels, Persian Shearwaters, a few Masked Boobies, Bridled Terns and a single surprise Flesh-footed Shearwater. In addition, we had a brief sighting of a Brown Noddy and Pekka glimpsed an unidentified storm petrel. After the boat trip we had a relaxed lunch in a local fish restaurant near the harbour. In the afternoon we headed for the mountains east of Salalah visiting Jabal Samhan, a wonderful site on the escarpment. Here we eventually enjoyed the wonderful experience of a pair of displaying Verreaux’s Eagles. We also noted Arabian Wheatears and had close-up views of several Tristram’s Starlings. The last stop of the afternoon was at Tawi Atayr, the site of an immense limestone sinkhole at which Yemen Serin was found by cavers in 1997, more than 1000km from the nearest population in Yemen (although it has since been found at another sinkhole to the west of Salalah). It took time to find the serins, but eventually we managed good views of a flock. In addition, we found a splendid family party of Arabian Partridges and watched the pair of Bonelli’s Eagles that breed here.
The new day started with a pre-breakfast visit to East Khwar, and then it was time to head west stopping first at a site where a Spotted Thick-knee, a new bird for us, was taking a snooze. Next came a visit to the Raysut water treatment plant, where new birds included Abdim’s Stork, Little Ringed Plover, White-winged Tern, Spur-winged Plover and a Little Crake for Mika only. The mixed flock of Spur-winged and Red-wattled Lapwings also held the two hybrid individuals we first discovered here in 2018. After lunch in a local restaurant, we visited the Raysut Beach, an excellent birding site, where the highlight was an African Openbill, apparently only the second record for Oman! In the afternoon we headed for the Al Mughsail area for a seawatch, which produced Sandwich and Lesser Crested Terns, both new birds for us, many Persian Shearwaters, Brown Boobies and 200 Socotra Cormorants. At sunset we headed for the traditional Desert Owl site and bagged this handsome, and very co-operative owl, with ease.

Our last full day in Oman began with a visit to a nearby farm, where we glimpsed a Singing Bush Lark. Then we revisited some of the sites we had previously birded including the day roost site of the Arabian Eagle-Owl, seeing a pair of these magnificent owls in broad daylight, and at a remote beach, we added Pheasant-tailed Jacana and White-breasted Waterhen to the trip list. The next day it was time to say goodbye to those participants, not joining us for the extension before heading for Bahrain for a two-night stay. Thanks to unfavourable flight connections and hassle with the rental car, we didn’t reach our hotel in Bahrain until midnight.

Our full day in Bahrain began around the arid hills, where, after a search, we managed to locate our main target, the Persian Mourning Wheatear, a potential split from Mourning Wheatear. The Bahrain racecourse yielded three new birds; Eurasian Skylark, Water Pipit and Greater Short-toed Lark. Later we headed for a seated lunch and then spent the afternoon in the Hypocolius pre-roost area, which consists of patches of acacia scrub, where the birds congregate before flying off to their roost presumably in the palms of VIP gardens. As usual, there was no large build up, just lots of comings and goings. The birds tower from the scrub as they leave and head off with purpose towards their roosting area. They really are unique superb-looking birds, so reminiscent of waxwings in their appearance and behaviour. We counted 144 of these excellent birds during the afternoon. In the evening our local contact, Abdullah, took us to two different farms, where we tried to locate Egyptian Nightjar, but had to settle for two hunting Barn Owls.


1st: Verreaux’s Eagle

2nd: Desert Owl

3rd: Crab-plover

4th: Arabian Golden-winged Grosbeak

5th: Arabian Partridge




Garganey  Spatula querquedula

Northern Shoveler  Spatula clypeata

Eurasian Wigeon  Mareca penelope

Northern Pintail  Anas acuta

Eurasian Teal  Anas crecca

Grey Francolin  Ortygornis pondicerianus

Sand Partridge ◊  Ammoperdix heyi Endemic to Arabian Peninsula and Middle East.

Common Quail  Coturnix coturnix

Arabian Partridge ◊  Alectoris melanocephala Endemic to southern half of the Arabian Peninsula.

Pallid Swift  Apus pallidus

Forbes-Watson’s Swift ◊  Apus berliozi Endemic to southern Oman and Socotra.

Asian Koel  Eudynamys scolopaceus

Common Cuckoo  Cuculus canorus

Chestnut-bellied Sandgrouse  Pterocles exustus

Spotted Sandgrouse ◊  Pterocles senegallus

Crowned Sandgrouse ◊  Pterocles coronatus

Lichtenstein’s Sandgrouse ◊  Pterocles lichtensteinii

Rock Dove  Columba livia

European Turtle Dove  Streptopelia turtur

Eurasian Collared Dove  Streptopelia decaocto

African Collared Dove ◊  Streptopelia roseogrisea

Laughing Dove (Palm D)  Spilopelia senegalensis

Namaqua Dove  Oena capensis

Bruce’s Green Pigeon ◊  Treron waalia

Common Moorhen  Gallinula chloropus

Eurasian Coot  Fulica atra

Red-knobbed Coot  Fulica cristata

Little Crake ◊  Zapornia parva

White-breasted Waterhen  Amaurornis phoenicurus

Little Grebe  Tachybaptus ruficollis

Greater Flamingo  Phoenicopterus roseus

Spotted Thick-knee  Burhinus capensis

Eurasian Oystercatcher  Haematopus ostralegus

Black-winged Stilt  Himantopus himantopus

Spur-winged Lapwing  Vanellus spinosus

Red-wattled Lapwing  Vanellus indicus

Spur-winged x Red-wattled Lapwing Two hybrid individuals we discovered in 2018 were still alive and well at the sewage works in Salalah.

Sociable Lapwing ◊  Vanellus gregarius Critically endangered.

White-tailed Lapwing ◊  Vanellus leucurus

Pacific Golden Plover  Pluvialis fulva

Grey Plover (Black-bellied P)  Pluvialis squatarola

Common Ringed Plover  Charadrius hiaticula

Little Ringed Plover  Charadrius dubius

Kentish Plover  Charadrius alexandrinus

Lesser Sand Plover  Charadrius [mongolus] atrifrons If the two-way split of Lesser Sand Plover is accepted, the form we encountered will become Tibetan Sand Plover.

Greater Sand Plover  Charadrius leschenaultii

Pheasant-tailed Jacana  Hydrophasianus chirurgus

Eurasian Whimbrel  Numenius phaeopus

Eurasian Curlew  Numenius arquata

Bar-tailed Godwit  Limosa lapponica

Black-tailed Godwit  Limosa limosa

Ruddy Turnstone  Arenaria interpres

Ruff  Calidris pugnax

Broad-billed Sandpiper ◊  Calidris falcinellus

Curlew Sandpiper  Calidris ferruginea

Temminck’s Stint  Calidris temminckii

Sanderling  Calidris alba

Dunlin  Calidris alpina

Little Stint  Calidris minuta

Common Snipe  Gallinago gallinago

Terek Sandpiper  Xenus cinereus

Red-necked Phalarope  Phalaropus lobatus

Common Sandpiper  Actitis hypoleucos

Green Sandpiper  Tringa ochropus

Common Redshank  Tringa totanus

Marsh Sandpiper  Tringa stagnatilis

Wood Sandpiper  Tringa glareola

Common Greenshank  Tringa nebularia

Crab-plover  Dromas ardeola Noted at Barr Al Hikman and in Salalah.

Cream-colored Courser  Cursorius cursor

Collared Pratincole  Glareola pratincola

Brown Noddy  Anous stolidus

Slender-billed Gull  Chroicocephalus genei

Sooty Gull ◊  Ichthyaetus hemprichii

Caspian Gull  Larus cachinnans

Lesser Black-backed Gull ◊ (Baltic G)  Larus [fuscus] fuscus

Lesser Black-backed Gull  Larus [fuscus] heuglini

Lesser Black-backed Gull ◊ (Steppe G)  Larus [fuscus] barabensis

Gull-billed Tern  Gelochelidon nilotica

Caspian Tern  Hydroprogne caspia

Greater Crested Tern  Thalasseus bergii

Lesser Crested Tern  Thalasseus bengalensis

Sandwich Tern  Thalasseus sandvicensis

Little Tern  Sternula albifrons

Bridled Tern  Onychoprion anaethetus

Common Tern  Sterna hirundo

Whiskered Tern  Chlidonias hybrida

White-winged Tern (W-w Black T)  Chlidonias leucopterus

Flesh-footed Shearwater  Ardenna carneipes

Persian Shearwater ◊  Puffinus persicus Endemic to seas surrounding the Arabian Peninsula.

Jouanin’s Petrel ◊  Bulweria fallax Endemic to seas surrounding the Arabian Peninsula.

African Openbill  Anastomus lamelligerus The one we found in Salalah was apparently only the second record for Oman.

Abdim’s Stork  Ciconia abdimii

White Stork  Ciconia ciconia

Masked Booby  Sula dactylatra

Brown Booby  Sula leucogaster

Socotra Cormorant ◊  Phalacrocorax nigrogularis Endemic to seas surrounding the Arabian Peninsula.

Great Cormorant  Phalacrocorax carbo

African Sacred Ibis  Threskiornis aethiopicus

Glossy Ibis  Plegadis falcinellus

Eurasian Spoonbill  Platalea leucorodia

Black-crowned Night Heron  Nycticorax nycticorax

Striated Heron  Butorides striata

Squacco Heron  Ardeola ralloides

Indian Pond Heron  Ardeola grayii

Western Cattle Egret  Bubulcus ibis

Grey Heron  Ardea cinerea

Purple Heron  Ardea purpurea

Great Egret  Ardea alba

Little Egret  Egretta garzetta

Western Reef Heron (W R Egret)  Egretta gularis

Osprey  Pandion haliaetus

Black-winged Kite Elanus caeruleus

Egyptian Vulture  Neophron percnopterus

Crested Honey Buzzard (Oriental HB)  Pernis ptilorhynchus

Lappet-faced Vulture  Torgos tracheliotos

Short-toed Snake Eagle  Circaetus gallicus

Greater Spotted Eagle  Clanga clanga

Booted Eagle  Hieraaetus pennatus

Steppe Eagle  Aquila nipalensis

Eastern Imperial Eagle  Aquila heliaca

Verreaux’s Eagle  Aquila verreauxii Great flight show by a displaying pair in the Salalah area.

Bonelli’s Eagle  Aquila fasciata

Shikra  Accipiter badius

Eurasian Sparrowhawk  Accipiter nisus

Western Marsh Harrier  Circus aeruginosus

Pallid Harrier  Circus macrourus

Long-legged Buzzard  Buteo rufinus

Western Barn Owl  Tyto alba

Little Owl  Athene noctua

Pallid Scops Owl ◊ (Striated S O)  Otus brucei

Arabian Scops Owl ◊  Otus pamelae Endemic to southern part of the Arabian Peninsula.

Pharaoh Eagle-Owl ◊  Bubo ascalaphus Heard only.

Arabian Eagle-Owl ◊  Bubo milesi Endemic to southern part of the Arabian Peninsula.

Desert Owl ◊  Strix hadorami Endemic to Arabian Peninsula and the Middle East.

Eurasian Hoopoe  Upupa epops

Indian Roller  Coracias benghalensis

European Roller  Coracias garrulus

Grey-headed Kingfisher  Halcyon leucocephala

Common Kingfisher  Alcedo atthis

Arabian Green Bee-eater ◊  Merops cyanophrys Endemic to Arabian Peninsula and the Middle East.

Blue-cheeked Bee-eater  Merops persicus

European Bee-eater  Merops apiaster

Lesser Kestrel Falco naumanni

Common Kestrel  Falco tinnunculus

Sooty Falcon ◊  Falco concolor

Eurasian Hobby  Falco subbuteo

Peregrine Falcon  Falco peregrinus

Rose-ringed Parakeet  Psittacula krameri

Black-crowned Tchagra  Tchagra senegalus

Red-backed Shrike  Lanius collurio

Isabelline Shrike (Daurian Shrike)  Lanius isabellinus

Red-tailed Shrike (Turkestan S)  Lanius phoenicuroides

Great Grey Shrike (Southern G S)  Lanius [excubitor] aucheri

Great Grey Shrike ◊ (Steppe G S)  Lanius [excubitor] pallidirostris

African Paradise Flycatcher  Terpsiphone viridis

House Crow (introduced)  Corvus splendens

Brown-necked Raven  Corvus ruficollis

Fan-tailed Raven ◊  Corvus rhipidurus

Grey Hypocolius ◊  Hypocolius ampelinus A total of 144 were counted at the pre-roost gathering in Bahrain.

Greater Hoopoe-Lark  Alaemon alaudipes

Desert Lark  Ammomanes deserti

Black-crowned Sparrow-Lark ◊  Eremopterix nigriceps

Singing Bush Lark  Mirafra cantillans

Eurasian Skylark  Alauda arvensis

Crested Lark  Galerida cristata

Greater Short-toed Lark  Calandrella brachydactyla

Bimaculated Lark  Melanocorypha bimaculata

Red-vented Bulbul (introduced)  Pycnonotus cafer

White-eared Bulbul (introduced)  Pycnonotus leucotis

White-spectacled Bulbul ◊ (Yellow-vented B)  Pycnonotus xanthopygos

Sand Martin (Bank Swallow)  Riparia riparia

Pale Crag Martin  Ptyonoprogne obsoleta

Barn Swallow  Hirundo rustica

Streaked Scrub Warbler ◊  Scotocerca inquieta

Wood Warbler  Phylloscopus sibilatrix

Plain Leaf Warbler ◊  Phylloscopus neglectus

Common Chiffchaff  Phylloscopus collybita

Green Warbler ◊  Phylloscopus nitidus

Clamorous Reed Warbler (Indian R W)  Acrocephalus [stentoreus] brunnescens

Common Reed Warbler  Acrocephalus scirpaceus

Savi’s Warbler  Locustella luscinioides Heard only.

Graceful Prinia  Prinia gracilis Common around Salalah.

Delicate Prinia  Prinia lepida This recent split from Graceful Prinia was common around Muscat and in Bahrain.

Eurasian Blackcap  Sylvia atricapilla

Lesser Whitethroat  Curruca curruca The form we encountered is halimodendri.

Arabian Warbler ◊  Curruca leucomelaena

Asian Desert Warbler ◊  Curruca nana

Menetries’s Warbler ◊  Curruca mystacea

Abyssinian White-eye (White-breasted W-e)  Zosterops abyssinicus

Arabian Babbler ◊  Argya squamiceps Endemic to Arabian Peninsula and the Middle East.

Common Myna  Acridotheres tristis

Rosy Starling (Rose-coloured S)  Pastor roseus

Tristram’s Starling ◊ (T Grackle)  Onychognathus tristramii

Spotted Flycatcher  Muscicapa striata

Red-breasted Flycatcher  Ficedula parva

Black Redstart  Phoenicurus ochruros

Blue Rock Thrush  Monticola solitarius

European Stonechat (B)  Saxicola rubicola

Isabelline Wheatear  Oenanthe isabellina

Desert Wheatear  Oenanthe deserti

Pied Wheatear  Oenanthe pleschanka

Blackstart ◊  Oenanthe melanura

Hume’s Wheatear ◊  Oenanthe albonigra

Mourning Wheatear ◊ (B) (Iranian W, Persian W)  Oenanthe [lugens] persica One in Bahrain.

Arabian Wheatear ◊  Oenanthe lugentoides Endemic to southern part of the Arabian Peninsula.

Red-tailed Wheatear ◊ (Persian W, Rufous-t W)  Oenanthe chrysopygia

Nile Valley Sunbird ◊  Hedydipna metallica

Palestine Sunbird ◊  Cinnyris osea Endemic to Arabian Peninsula and the Middle East.

Arabian Sunbird ◊  Cinnyris hellmayri Endemic to southern part of the Arabian Peninsula.

Purple Sunbird  Cinnyris asiaticus

House Sparrow  Passer domesticus

Rüppell’s Weaver ◊  Ploceus galbula

African Silverbill  Euodice cantans

Indian Silverbill ◊  Euodice malabarica

Western Yellow Wagtail ◊ (Yellow-headed W)  Motacilla [flava] lutea

Western Yellow Wagtail (Black-headed W)  Motacilla [flava] feldegg

Western Yellow Wagtail (Grey-headed W)  Motacilla [flava] thunbergi

Citrine Wagtail  Motacilla citreola

Grey Wagtail  Motacilla cinerea

White Wagtail  Motacilla alba

Tawny Pipit  Anthus campestris

Long-billed Pipit  Anthus similis

Tree Pipit  Anthus trivialis

Red-throated Pipit  Anthus cervinus

Water Pipit  Anthus spinoletta

Arabian Golden-winged Grosbeak ◊  Rhynchostruthus percivali Great views near Salalah! Endemic to southern part of the Arabian Peninsula.

Yemen Serin ◊  Crithagra menachensis Endemic to southern part of the Arabian Peninsula.

Ortolan Bunting  Emberiza hortulana

Striolated Bunting ◊ (Striated B)  Emberiza striolata

Cinnamon-breasted Bunting (African Rock B)  Emberiza tahapisi



Red Fox  Vulpes vulpes

Five-striped Palm Squirrel (introduced)  Funambulus pennata

Desert Hedgehog  Paraechinus aethiopicus

Arabian Golden Spiny Mouse  Acomys russatus



(List compiled by Bob Orenstein)

Bosc’s Fringe-toed Lizard  Acanthodactylus boskianus

Cat Fringe-fingered Lizard  Acanthodactylus felicis

Hadramawt Sand Lizard  Mesalina adramitana

Rock Semaphore Gecko Pristurus rupestris

Northern House Gecko  Hemidactylus flaviviridis

Toad-headed Agama  Phrynocephalus sp.

Desert Agama  Pseudotrapelus sp.

Oriental Garden Lizard  Calotes versicolor Introduced.

Green Sea Turtle  Chelonia mydas

Loggerhead Sea Turtle  Caretta caretta