7 - 25 August 2023

by Craig Robson

Our first Birdquest to The Lesser Sundas for six years was a great success, with more than 100 taxonomy-dependant Tenggaran endemics amongst our healthy trip total of 249 species. There was no birding on Bali this time, apart from at the airport. Some of the top highlights this year included Timor Nightjar, Timor, Eucalypt and Black Cuckoo-Doves, Flores Green Pigeon, Red-naped Fruit Dove, Timor Imperial Pigeon, Sumba, Rote, Timor and Least Boobooks, Flores Scops Owl, Sumba Hornbill, White-rumped and Cinnamon-banded Kingfishers, Yellow- and Citron-crested Cockatoos, Sumba Eclectus, Iris, Olive-headed, Marigold and Leaf Lorikeets, Wallace’s Hanging Parrot, excellent perched views of both Ornate and Elegant Pittas, Sumba, Rote and Black-breasted Myzomelas, Flame-eared Honeyeater, Little Minivet, the vocally well-endowed Bare-throated Whistler, Brown-capped, “Rote”, “Timor” and “Supertramp” Fantails, Flores Monarch, Flores Crow, Russet-capped Tesia, Timor Stubtail, Flores, Timor and Rote Leaf Warblers, Buff-banded Thicketbird, 5 endemic Heleias, Orange-sided, Chestnut-capped and Chestnut-backed Thrushes, Flores Shortwing, Black-banded Flycatcher, White-bellied Bush Chat, all 7 endemic flowerpeckers (taxonomy-dependant), Apricot- and Flame-breasted Sunbirds, both Tricolored and the recently discovered Mount Mutis Parrotfinch (including adult males), and Timor Sparrow.

The tour began with an afternoon group rendezvous at Denpasar Airport, and we were joined by local bird-guide Hery Kusumanegara. Due to the late timing of the flight and its further delay, there was no time for any birding when we disembarked on Sumba. We were up bright and early the next morning however, and very keen to get going! Yumbu Grasslands was our first port of call, in search of our first endemic, Sumba Buttonquail. The first sweep was successful, and we ended up with several pretty good and close flight views. A small number of Brown Quail and Singing Bush Larks were also flushed. We moved on to the freshwater wetlands of Menggitimbe. Wet areas were extensive this year, and we logged our first Wandering Whistling and Pacific Black Ducks and a few Sunda Teal. Also of interest were Australian Swamphen, Javan Plover, our first “Supertramp” (Arafura) Fantail and Sunda Zebra Finches, and Pale-headed Munia. After a quick turn-around at our hotel, we drove north to Londa Liru Beach, where Malaysian Plover eventually showed up, before continuing west to Lewa, where a simple homestay was our home for the next three nights.

We had two days and an afternoon to find the remainder of our targets on Sumba. Early morning at an excellent vantage point, with views over extensive forest, was the premier venue for the non-passerine specialities. Here we scoped the recently split Citron-crested Cockatoo and Sumba Eclectus, as well as Sumba Hornbill, Red-naped Fruit Dove and the more widespread Great-billed Parrot, Wallacean Cuckoo-shrike, and Broad-billed Flycatcher. Nearby, the main road winds down through some nice forest, and here there were good numbers of Marigold Lorikeets, Sumba Myzomelas and “Sumba” (Blood-breasted) Flowerpeckers, and we also noted Eucalypt Cuckoo-Dove, Cinnamon-banded Kingfisher, Chestnut-backed Thrush, Sumba Brown Flycatcher, Apricot-breasted Sunbird, and “Tenggara” (Thick-billed) Flowerpecker. The roadsides at Langgaliru were as productive as always, with several Sumba Jungle Flycatchers and our only Sumba Flycatcher. Our nocturnal activities were extensive. After a six-year hiatus, there were new challenges involved with finding the endemic owls, but we persevered, and eventually had fantastic views of both Sumba and Least Boobooks. The local form of Eastern Barn Owl was a heard-only.

The following morning, we had an early flight to Kupang in West Timor, and we began our explorations in earnest with an afternoon visit to Bipolo. The heat of the day was beginning to wane as we walked a track between remnant lowland forest and Teak plantations. A nice introductory selection of birds included “Gould’s” (Little) Bronze Cuckoo, Rose-crowned Fruit-Dove, Fawn-breasted Whistler, Red-chested Flowerpecker, Black-breasted Myzomela, Streak-breasted and Flame-eared Honeyeaters, “Timor” (Northern) Fantail, and Flame-breasted Sunbird. In the nearby fields Australian Pratincole, a distant Brown Goshawk, White-shouldered Triller, a good number of Tree Martins, and Pale-headed Munia were the highlights. Back at the forest edge, not long after nightfall, we eventually had great views of a pair of Timor Boobooks, after a lengthy effort.

The neighbouring island of Rote was our destination the next morning, as we made our way to the ferry port. After a smooth journey of less than two hours, we disembarked and were transported to a comfortable hotel. After lunch, we headed off for our first foray into the field. Three of the four endemics were found close to Lake Sotimori, “Rote” (Northern) Fantail and Rote Leaf Warbler and, after nightfall, an obliging wing-drooping Rote Boobook. Other goodies included Black Cuckoo-Dove, Pink-headed Imperial Pigeon, and Timor Oriole. We were out for dawn the next morning, and exploring new areas, where we caught up with Rote Myzomela, and also added great looks at Pacific Emerald Dove and Red-backed Buttonquail, Jonquil Parrot, a couple of surprisingly obliging Timor Stubtails, Orange-sided Thrush, and Timor Blue Flycatcher. After lunch, we caught a return ferry back to Kupang.

Our first full day in the field in west Timor saw us heading first for Camplong, an easy drive of less than an hour from our hotel in Kupang. The main targets were quite hard work, but by lunchtime we had managed Spot-breasted Heleia, our first brief views of Buff-banded Thicketbird, leader-only Black-banded Flycatcher, and several very obliging Tricolored Parrotfinches feeding on seeding bamboo. In the afternoon we switched locations to Bipolo. Starting at the back of the fields, we were able to quite quickly locate a large group of Timor Sparrows, and also had our best views of Pale-headed and Five-coloured Munias. Taking a trail north of Bipolo, we found Banded Fruit Dove, more Pink-headed Imperial Pigeons, and had much better views of the Thicketbird.

After just over two hours of driving early the next morning, thanks to a new road development, we were able to easily reach Lelogama, on the lower slopes of Gunung Timau. The lovely peaceful Eucalypt forests here were full of birds at dawn, and we enjoyed great views of the elusive Timor Imperial Pigeon, both Iris and Olive-headed Lorikeets, many Flame-eared Honeyeaters, Timor Friarbird, “Timor” (Yellow-throated) Whistler, “Timor Spangled” (Wallacean) Drongo, and Timor Leaf Warbler. At a somewhat lower level, Black-banded Flycatcher showed brilliantly, as did a male “Timor” (Blood-breasted) Flowerpecker. We continued onwards to our hotel in Soe, in time for lunch.

The afternoon was spent at nearby Oelnasi, an area of monsoon forest 15km back towards Kupang. It wasn’t long before we heard the distinctive wolf-whistle of a Timor Cuckoo-Dove, and it was eventually coaxed into view. Another Black Cuckoo-Dove was noted. As it got dark, we positioned ourselves in a small clearing in time to hear the recently split Timor Nightjar when it began to utter its unique territorial call. Great views were had by spotlight of a male, as it floated above us and, just to round things off nicely, a couple of Eastern Barn Owls gave some illuminated flight views, and another Timor Boobook was spotted.

West Timor’s highest mountain, Gunung Mutis was our next port of call, as we left in the dark in our comfortable 4-wheel drive vehicles. We started the day with a parrotfinch hunt near Fatumnasi. I pair of rare (and still yet to be formally described) Mount Mutis (or Timor) Parrotfinches were spotted by the guides but remained elusive as the day heated-up. A dependant fledged Sunda Cuckoo was watched being fed by a pair of Timor Leaf Warblers, and we had repeat sightings of Black Cuckoo-Dove, Banded Fruit-Dove, and Timor Imperial Pigeon. Moving to higher levels we checked-out the local form of Pygmy Cupwing (sadly now a lost cause as far as a split is concerned, it seems), as well as several “Timor” Island Thrushes. After lunch we returned to the parrotfinch task and, after some serious hard work, ended up getting some good views of around ten Mount Mutis Parrotfinches, including some smart males. A few Tricolored Parrotfinches were also seen. The sun had gone by now, so we headed back to Soe well satisfied.

Our last day on Timor began with an early morning walk at Oelnasi, where we finally tracked down Green (Timor) Figbird, and also had better views of a pair of Timor Cuckoo-Doves and, for some, three Jonquil Parrots. After lunch at the hotel in Soe, we drove back to Kupang, with a detour to Pan Muti, near Bipolo en route. A small selection of shorebirds here included a group of Sharp-tailed Sandpipers, and we also noted a single unexpected Sunda Collared Dove, Ruddy-breasted and White-browed Crakes, and Australian Tern. At this point, we said goodbye to Martin Klau who, along with his son Rocky, had done a great job of guiding us on Sumba, Rote and Timor.

Our flights to Ruteng the following morning were cancelled and we had to re-route the group, and separately the two leaders, due to a shortage of available flights. The group all managed to get on a flight to Bajawa where they were met by local guide Samuel and taken birding at Kisol in the late afternoon. Highlights were good views of White-rumped Kingfisher and Ornate Pitta (recently split from Elegant) and, at nightfall, Mees’s Nightjar. Craig and Hery had to fly to Labuan Bajo via Surabaya in E Java, and then drive over five hours to the guest house. The whole of the following day and much of the next morning were spent birding at Kisol. Many hours scanning the slopes of Gunung Pacandeki for Flores Hawk-Eagle turned up nothing, apart from several Crested Honey-buzzards, a Short-toed Eagle and Variable Goshawk. Our best birds were our first Orange-footed Scrubfowl, around nine Flores Green Pigeons that showed exceedingly well, Moluccan Scops Owl, Little Minivet, ‘Bima” (Rusty-breasted) Whistler, the whacky Flores Crow, Thick-billed Heleia, Golden-rumped and Black-fronted Flowerpeckers, and Flame-breasted Sunbird.

Moving on up into the hills, we paused for a birding break at Rana Mese, before continuing to our accommodation in Ruteng in time for lunch. The trail to the lake turned up our first “Tenggara” (Blyth’s) Paradise Flycatcher, Crested White-eye, and Flores Jungle Flycatcher. After lunch we drove up to Golo Lusang. The southern side of the range was fog-bound so we birded where possible on the north side. We had some very good views of Flores Shortwing, and also added Flores Leaf Warbler, as well as a couple more Flores Jungle Flycatchers. After dark, we only managed silhouette flight views of Flores and Wallace’s Scops Owls. We were back again predawn and were further frustrated by the owls. After a quick breakfast at the pass. We walked downhill while listening to the dawn-chorus from the amazing Bare-throated Whistlers. There seemed to be good numbers singing, and a couple of them thankfully perched out long enough to be admired by all of us. A string of good sightings followed, as we gradually descended in altitude: Dark-backed Imperial Pigeon, Rufous-bellied Eagle, a greatly appreciated pair of Wallace’s Hanging Parrots, Scaly-crowned Honeyeater, Brown-capped Fantail, a brief Russet-capped Tesia, Yellow-breasted Warbler, Cream-browed White-eye, “Flores” (Ashy-bellied) White-eye, and “Flores” (Blood-breasted) Flowerpecker. The afternoon was a bit of a wash-out apart from our best views yet of Russet-capped Tesia, and our third owling session only resulted in a brief leader-only view of Flores Scops Owl.

The next morning was spent along a minor road north of Ruteng, that skirts the forested slopes from near Pagal down to Gapong. Having already seen most of our targets, we spent yet more hours scanning for eagles, but still to no avail. The best birds were a pair of Dark-backed Imperial Pigeon (building a nest), Red-cheeked Parrot, a flyby Leaf Lorikeet, and “Tenggara Golden” (Black-naped) Oriole. The afternoon at Rana Mese was terribly quiet but we had a further sighting of Cream-browed White-eye and our first Rufous-chested Flycatcher. Our fifth owling session in the mountains finally bore fruit, with superb lengthy spotlight views of a calling Flores Scops Owl. The mixture of excitement and relief was almost tangible.

There was another early start the next morning, as we travelled west for a dawn visit to Puarlolo, in search of the endemic Flores Monarch. The monarch performed well this year, in two different spots, and it was nice to be able to observe them feeding unperturbed. Two other good birds showed exceedingly well, Chestnut-capped Thrush and Rufous-chested Flycatcher, as well as some foraging Black-faced Munias. Further along the highway at a regular spot for feeding Leaf Lorikeets, we succeeded in getting scope views of this scarce endemic. Continuing on to Labuan Bajo we had lunch and checked-in to our comfortable hotel. The afternoon was spent along the Potawangka Road. A distant “Rensch’s” (Bonelli’s) Eagle had us going for a while as it circled up on broad wings, and a pair of Great-billed Parrots were good for west Flores.

On our last day in the Lesser Sundas, we made the journey to Komodo National Park. We boarded our boat before dawn and grabbed a couple more hours of sleep as we cruised across the straits. We awoke in time to enjoy a beautiful sunrise and glorious views, on the way to the island. As we neared the jetty, a hulking Beach Thick-knee flew across and alighted on the beach ahead of us. After being allotted our park guides, we were soon staring at several huge Komodo Dragons. A walk through the dry woodlands enabled us to get great views of Orange-footed Scrubfowl and Green Junglefowl, as well as Komodo’s most important bird, the critically endangered Yellow-crested Cockatoo. Other good birds included a couple of tame Sunda Collared Doves, Pied Imperial Pigeon, and Wallacean Cuckooshrike. Heading back to Labuan Bajo with our eyes glued to the sea, we added Bulwer’s Petrels and Red-necked Phalaropes. In the hotel garden, a small flock of Lemon-bellied White-eyes were welcome.

Our last birding of the tour was done in the lower hills on the way to Puarlolo. A good selection of nice birds rounded-off the trip for us before we all headed off to the airport and went our separate ways.










Flores Scops Owl
Bare-throated Whistler
Mount Mutis Parrotfinch
Ornate Pitta
Chestnut-capped Thrush




Wandering Whistling Duck  Dendrocygna arcuata   50 at Menggitimbe, Sumba and 120 at L. Sotimori, Rote.

Pacific Black Duck  Anas superciliosa

Sunda Teal ◊  Anas gibberifrons   Four at Menggitimbe and nine at Pan Muti, Timor.

Orange-footed Scrubfowl ◊  Megapodius reinwardt   Best seen as usual on Komodo.

Green Junglefowl ◊  Gallus varius   Ditto.

Red Junglefowl (introduced)  Gallus gallus

Brown Quail  Synoicus ypsilophorus   Ten on Sumba (pallidior), and a couple on Timor (raaltenii).

Timor Nightjar ◊  Caprimulgus sp. nov.   Endemic. Lovely flight views of a male near Soe, Timor.

Mees’s Nightjar ◊ (Sunda N)  Caprimulgus meesi   Endemic. Showed best at Kisol, Flores.

Savanna Nightjar  Caprimulgus affinis   Seen briefly on Rote; heard a couple of times on Timor (timorensis).

Tenggara Swiftlet ◊  Collocalia sumbawae   Endemic.

Drab Swiftlet ◊ (Timor S)  Collocalia neglecta   Endemic.

Cave Swiftlet ◊  Collocalia linchi   At Denpasar Airport.

Edible-nest Swiftlet (White-nest S)  Aerodramus fuciphagus

House Swift  Apus nipalensis

Lesser Coucal  Centropus bengalensis

Asian Koel (Common K)  Eudynamys scolopaceus   Single malayanus near Labuan Bajo, Flores.

Pacific Koel  Eudynamys orientalis   Heard-only.

Shining Bronze Cuckoo  Chrysococcyx lucidus   One near Lewa, Sumba.

Little Bronze Cuckoo ◊ [Gould’s B C]  Chrysococcyx [minutillus] russatus   Endemic. Seen well on Timor & Flores.

Brush Cuckoo (Australian B C)  Cacomantis variolosus

Rusty-breasted Cuckoo (Sunda B C)  Cacomantis sepulcralis

Sunda Cuckoo ◊  Cuculus lepidus   Sightings included Timor Leaf Warblers feeding a juvenile at Fatumnasi.

Rock Dove (Feral Pigeon) (introduced)  Columba livia

Metallic Pigeon ◊  Columba vitiensis

Sunda Collared Dove  Streptopelia bitorquata   An unexpected bird at Pan Muti, Timor; another on Komodo.

Spotted Dove  Spilopelia chinensis

Ruddy Cuckoo-Dove ◊ (Parzudaki’s C-D)  Macropygia emiliana   Non-leader. Pagal to Gapong Road, Flores.

Timor Cuckoo-Dove ◊ (Barred-necked C-D)  Macropygia magna   Endemic. Three seen well near Soe.

Eucalypt Cuckoo-Dove ◊  Macropygia sp. nov.   Endemic. A handful seen on Sumba. 

Black Cuckoo-Dove ◊ (Slaty C-D)  Turacoena modesta   Endemic. Seven were seen on Rote & Timor.

Common Emerald Dove (Asian E D)  Chalcophaps indica

Pacific Emerald Dove (Green-winged Pigeon)  Chalcophaps longirostris

Barred Dove ◊  Geopelia maugeus

Flores Green Pigeon ◊  Treron floris   Endemic. A good year, with at least nine seen at Kisol.

Banded Fruit Dove ◊ (Black-backed F D)  Ptilinopus cinctus   Endemic. Timor (cinctus) & Flores (albocintus).

Red-naped Fruit Dove ◊  Ptilinopus dohertyi   Endemic. Around eight seen on Sumba, and others heard.

Rose-crowned Fruit Dove ◊  Ptilinopus regina   Many sightings of the lovely flavicollis subspecies.

Black-naped Fruit Dove  Ptilinopus melanospilus

Green Imperial Pigeon  Ducula aenea

Pink-headed Imperial Pigeon ◊  Ducula rosacea   Seen very well on Rote and Timor.

Dark-backed Imperial Pigeon ◊  Ducula lacernulata   4 seen Flores; nesting pair high in strangler fig at Pagal.

Timor Imperial Pigeon ◊  Ducula cineracea   Endemic. Great views at Lelogama, then another at Fatumnasi.

Pied Imperial Pigeon  Ducula bicolor   Two on palm fruits on Komodo.

Buff-banded Rail  Hypotaenidia philippensis

Common Moorhen  Gallinula chloropus

Australasian Swamphen  Porphyrio melanotus

Ruddy-breasted Crake  Zapornia fusca

White-browed Crake  Poliolimnas cinereus

White-breasted Waterhen  Amaurornis phoenicurus

Tricolored Grebe ◊  Tachybaptus tricolor

Red-backed Buttonquail ◊  Turnix maculosus   A pair showed well on Rote (nominate).

Sumba Buttonquail ◊  Turnix everetti   Endemic. Several were flushed at Yumbu, as usual.

Beach Stone-curlew (B Thick-knee)  Esacus magnirostris   One on the beach as we arrived at Komodo.

Pied Stilt (White-headed S)  Himantopus leucocephalus

Pacific Golden Plover  Pluvialis fulva

Javan Plover ◊  Charadrius javanicus   Four on Sumba, and another near Labuan Bajo.

Red-capped Plover  Charadrius ruficapillus

Malaysian Plover ◊  Charadrius peronii   After some effort, we found three on Londa Liru Beach, Sumba.

Greater Sand Plover  Charadrius leschenaultii   Non-leader.

Eurasian Whimbrel [Siberian W]  Numenius [phaeopus] variegatus

Sharp-tailed Sandpiper  Calidris acuminata   15 at Pan Muti, Timor.

Curlew Sandpiper  Calidris ferruginea

Long-toed Stint  Calidris subminuta

Red-necked Stint (Rufous-n S)  Calidris ruficollis

Red-necked Phalarope  Phalaropus lobatus

Common Sandpiper  Actitis hypoleucos

Marsh Sandpiper  Tringa stagnatilis

Wood Sandpiper  Tringa glareola

Common Greenshank  Tringa nebularia

Australian Pratincole  Stiltia isabella

Australian Tern (A Gull-billed T)  Gelochelidon macrotarsa   Three breeding-plumaged birds on Timor.

Greater Crested Tern  Thalasseus bergii

Little Tern  Sternula albifrons

Bridled Tern  Onychoprion anaethetus   Over 100 were estimated during the return journey from Rote.

Black-naped Tern  Sterna sumatrana

Whiskered Tern  Chlidonias hybrida

Bulwer’s Petrel  Bulweria bulwerii   Four passing through the deep channel on the way back from Komodo.

Lesser Frigatebird  Fregata ariel

Brown Booby  Sula leucogaster   At least nine close inshore at Rote.

Little Pied Cormorant  Microcarbo melanoleucos

Little Black Cormorant  Phalacrocorax sulcirostris

Yellow Bittern  Ixobrychus sinensis

Black-crowned Night Heron  Nycticorax nycticorax   A write-in: 1 L. Sotimori & 50 Bendungan Tilong, Timor.

Nankeen Night Heron  Nycticorax caledonicus   At least five at Bendungan Tilong, Timor.

Striated Heron (Little H)  Butorides striata

Javan Pond Heron  Ardeola speciosa

Eastern Cattle Egret  Bubulcus coromandus

Great-billed Heron  Ardea sumatrana   Non-leader.

Purple Heron  Ardea purpurea

Great Egret [Eastern G E]  Ardea [alba] modesta

Intermediate Egret [Plumed E]  Ardea [intermedia] plumifera

Little Egret [Black-footed E]  Egretta [garzetta] nigripes

Pacific Reef Heron (P R Egret)  Egretta sacra

Black-winged Kite  Elanus caeruleus

Crested Honey Buzzard (Oriental H-b)  Pernis ptilorhynchus

Pacific Baza  Aviceda subcristata   One at Camplong (timorlaoensis).

Short-toed Snake Eagle (S-t Eagle)  Circaetus gallicus   Two or three on Flores (sacerdotis).

Rufous-bellied Eagle (R-b Eagle)  Lophotriorchis kienerii

Bonelli’s Eagle ◊ [Rensch’s E]  Aquila [fasciata] renschi   One ‘had us going’ along the Potawangka Road.

Variable Goshawk ◊ [Tenggara G]  Accipiter [hiogaster] sylvestris   Endemic. One at Kisol.

Brown Goshawk  Accipiter fasciatus   A few on Sumba (tjendanae) and Timor (hellmayri).

Black Kite  Milvus migrans   A few affinis on Sumba.

Brahminy Kite  Haliastur indus

White-bellied Sea Eagle  Haliaeetus leucogaster

Eastern Barn Owl  Tyto javanica   Two seen at Oelnasi, Timor (delicatula).

Eastern Barn Owl ◊ [Sumba B O]  Tyto [javanica] sumbaensis   Heard-only. Endemic. Two heard near Lewa.

Sumba Boobook ◊ (Great S B)  Ninox rudolfi   Endemic. Fantastic views of one near Lewa.

Rote Boobook ◊  Ninox rotiensis   Endemic. Super views of one on Rote.

Timor Boobook ◊ (Streaked B)  Ninox fusca   Endemic. A pair at Bipolo, and another at Oelnasi.

Least Boobook ◊ (Little Sumba B)  Ninox sumbaensis   Endemic. Terrific views of a pair near Lewa.

Flores Scops Owl ◊  Otus alfredi   Endemic. Fantastic views for all, at the fifth attempt!!

Moluccan Scops Owl ◊  Otus magicus   Easily seen at Kisol.

Wallace’s Scops Owl ◊  Otus silvicola   Endemic. Elusive this year, with just one or two silhouettes in flight.

Sumba Hornbill ◊  Rhyticeros everetti   Endemic. Great views, with nine logged.

White-rumped Kingfisher ◊ (Glittering K)  Caridonax fulgidus   Endemic. Not uncommon on Flores.

Stork-billed Kingfisher  Pelargopsis capensis   Two floresiana noted on Flores.

Collared Kingfisher  Todiramphus chloris

Sacred Kingfisher  Todiramphus sanctus

Cinnamon-banded Kingfisher ◊  Todiramphus australasia   Near-endemic. 2 seen on both Sumba & Timor (nominate).

Common Kingfisher ◊ [Hispid K]  Alcedo [atthis] hispidoides   Scattered sightings.

Blue-tailed Bee-eater  Merops philippinus

Rainbow Bee-eater  Merops ornatus

Sunda Pygmy Woodpecker  Yungipicus moluccensis   Several sightings on Flores (grandis).

Spotted Kestrel ◊ (Indonesian K)  Falco moluccensis

Peregrine Falcon [Australasian P]  Falco [peregrinus] ernesti

Yellow-crested Cockatoo ◊  Cacatua sulphurea   Excellent views on Komodo; ten or so in total.

Citron-crested Cockatoo ◊ (Orange-c C)  Cacatua citrinocristata   Endemic. 8-10 seen on Sumba.

Jonquil Parrot ◊ (Olive-shouldered P)  Aprosmictus jonquillaceus   Endemic. 6 on Rote and 3 on Timor.

Sumba Eclectus ◊  Eclectus cornelia   Endemic. Probably at least three scoped; a recent split.

Red-cheeked Parrot  Geoffroyus geoffroyi   Sumba & Flores (floresianus); Timor (nominate).

Great-billed Parrot ◊  Tanygnathus megalorynchos   3-5 on Sumba (sumbensis) & encouragingly 2 near Labuan Bajo (nominate).

Iris Lorikeet ◊  Saudareos iris   Endemic. At least 15 of these little beauties near Gunung Timau, Timor.

Olive-headed Lorikeet ◊  Trichoglossus euteles   Endemic. Small numbers seen in the mountains of Timor.

Marigold Lorikeet ◊  Trichoglossus capistratus   Endemic. At least 18 seen and others heard on Sumba. Great views.

Leaf Lorikeet ◊ (Flores L)  Trichoglossus weberi   Endemic. Small numbers on Flores, with nice scope views.

Wallace’s Hanging Parrot ◊  Loriculus flosculus   Endemic. A pair were seen exceedingly well near Ruteng.

Ornate Pitta ◊ (Wallace’s Elegant P)  Pitta concinna   Endemic. Two seen and many heard on Flores.

Elegant Pitta ◊ (Temminck’s E P)  Pitta elegans   Endemic breeder. One scoped and many heard on Sumba (maria).

Scaly-crowned Honeyeater ◊ (Sunda H)  Sugomel lombokium   Endemic. Frequently seen on Flores.

Sumba Myzomela ◊  Myzomela dammermani   Endemic. Some great close sightings.

Rote Myzomela ◊  Myzomela irianawidodoae   Endemic. Several seen well.

Black-breasted Myzomela ◊ (Timor M)  Myzomela vulnerata   Endemic. Not uncommon on Timor.

Timor Friarbird ◊  Philemon inornatus   Endemic. Ditto.

Helmeted Friarbird ◊ [Tenggara F] Philemon [buceroides] buceroides   Endemic. Widespread sightings.

Brown Honeyeater ◊ [Indonesian H]  Lichmera [indistincta] limbata

Flame-eared Honeyeater ◊ (Yellow-e H)  Lichmera flavicans   Endemic. Particularly in the Timor mountains.

Streak-breasted Honeyeater ◊ (Timor Meliphaga)  Territornis reticulata   Endemic. Locally common.

Golden-bellied Gerygone (Sunda G)  Gerygone sulphurea

Plain Gerygone ◊ (Timor G)  Gerygone inornata   Endemic. Quite common on Timor.

White-breasted Woodswallow  Artamus leucorynchus

Wallacean Cuckooshrike ◊ [Timor C]  Coracina [personata] personata   Endemic. Heard-only. Once on Rote.

Wallacean Cuckooshrike ◊ [Flores C]  Coracina [personata] floris   Endemic. One at close range on Komodo.

Wallacean Cuckooshrike ◊ [Sumba C]  Coracina [personata] sumbensis   Endemic. Several seen well on Sumba.

Pale-shouldered Cicadabird ◊  Coracina dohertyi   Endemic. A couple close overhead on Sumba.

White-shouldered Triller ◊  Lalage sueurii

Little Minivet ◊ (Flores M)  Pericrocotus lansbergei   Endemic. This little beauty was quite common on Flores.

Fawn-breasted Whistler ◊  Pachycephala orpheus   Endemic. Several sightings of this drab endemic.

Rusty-breasted Whistler ◊ [Bima W]  Pachycephala [fulvotincta] fulvotincta   Endemic. The Golden-type on Flores.

Rusty-breasted Whistler ◊ [Sumba W]  Pachycephala [fulvotincta] fulviventris   Endemic. Frequent on Sumba.

Yellow-throated Whistler ◊ [Timor W]  Pachycephala [macrorhyncha] calliope   Endemic. A few seen on Timor.

Bare-throated Whistler ◊  Pachycephala nudigula   Endemic. One of the birds of the trip, with its amazing voice.

Green Figbird ◊ (Timor F)  Sphecotheres viridis   Endemic. Several seen, with the best two females at Oelnasi.

Timor Oriole ◊  Oriolus melanotis   Endemic. Several good sightings on Rote and Timor.

Black-naped Oriole ◊ [Tenggara Golden O]  Oriolus [chinensis] broderipi   Endemic. Particularly common on Flores.

Wallacean Drongo ◊ [Flores Spangled D]  Dicrurus [densus] bimaensis   Endemic. Common.

Wallacean Drongo ◊ [Sumba Spangled D]  Dicrurus [densus] sumbae   Endemic. Pretty common.

Wallacean Drongo ◊ [Timor Spangled D]  Dicrurus [densus] densus   Endemic. Always scarce, with just 2 Lelogama.

Brown-capped Fantail ◊ (Trumpeting F)  Rhipidura diluta   Endemic. Frequent in Flores, mainly mountains.

Northern Fantail ◊ [Rote F]  Rhipidura [rufiventris] tenkatei   Endemic. Common.

Northern Fantail ◊ [Timor F]  Rhipidura [rufiventris] rufiventris   Endemic. Common.

Arafura Fantail ◊ [Supertramp F]  Rhipidura [dryas] semicollaris   2 forms: sumbensis (Sumba); semicollaris (Flores & Timor).

Black-naped Monarch  Hypothymis azurea   Frequent on Flores (symmixta).

Blyth’s Paradise Flycatcher ◊ [Tenggara P F]  Terpsiphone [affinis] floris   Endemic. Many seen Sumba & Flores.

Flores Monarch ◊  Symposiachrus sacerdotum   Endemic. Four seen, including a pair with a fledged juvenile.

Spectacled Monarch (Australian S M)  Symposiachrus trivirgatus   Widespread singles (nominate).

Broad-billed Flycatcher (B-b Monarch)  Myiagra ruficollis   Well seen on Sumba and Timor (nominate).

Flores Crow ◊  Corvus florensis   Endemic. Some good looks at this clever sneak.

Large-billed Crow [Southern Jungle C]  Corvus [macrorhynchos] macrorhynchos

Grey-headed Canary-flycatcher  Culicicapa ceylonensis   A couple on Sumba (connectens).

Cinereous Tit  Parus cinereus

Singing Bush Lark (Australasian Bushlark)  Mirafra javanica   Particularly at Yumbu (parva); also Bipolo (timornesis).

Sooty-headed Bulbul  Pycnonotus aurigaster

Pacific Swallow  Hirundo tahitica

Striated Swallow  Cecropis striolata

Tree Martin  Petrochelidon nigricans   Seen quite often on Timor (timoriensis).

Pygmy Cupwing  Pnoepyga pusilla   One performed at G. Mutis (timorensis); heard on Flores (everetti).

Aberrant Bush Warbler ◊ [Sunda B W]  Horornis [flavolivaceus] vulcanius   Seen well on Timor (everetti).

Russet-capped Tesia ◊  Tesia everetti   Endemic. Easily seen on Flores; an obliging member of the genus.

Timor Stubtail ◊  Urosphena subulata   Endemic. Seen well early on, on Rote. Frequently heard on Timor.

Yellow-breasted Warbler  Seicercus montis  A few seen well in montane Flores (floris).

Flores Leaf Warbler ◊  Phylloscopus floresianus   Endemic. Quite common in the mountains.

Timor Leaf Warbler ◊  Phylloscopus presbytes   Endemic. Ditto on Timor.

Rote Leaf Warbler ◊  Phylloscopus rotiensis   Endemic. Several seen very well.

Australian Reed Warbler  Acrocephalus australis

Buff-banded Thicketbird ◊ (Timor T, B-b Bushbird)  Cincloramphus bivittatus   Endemic. One showed particularly well near Bipolo.

Tawny Grassbird  Cincloramphus timoriensis   Several seen on Sumba (inquirendus).

Zitting Cisticola [Double-zitting C]  Cisticola [juncidis] tinnabulans

Cream-browed White-eye ◊ (Eyebrowed Heleia, White-b W-e)  Heleia superciliaris   Endemic. Just a couple on Flores.

Crested White-eye ◊ (C Heleia, Dark-crowned W-e)  Heleia dohertyi   Endemic. Quite common on Flores.

Spot-breasted Heleia ◊ (Timor H, Timor White-eye)  Heleia muelleri   Endemic. A good year; many seen on Timor.

Thick-billed Heleia ◊ (Flores White-e)  Heleia crassirostris   Endemic. Frequent on Flores

Yellow-ringed White-eye ◊ (Wallace’s Heleia)  Heleia wallacei   Endemic. Common enough on Sumba and Flores.

Warbling White-eye [Mountain W-e]  Zosterops [japonicus] montanus   Common in montane Flores; also Timor (neglectus).

Lemon-bellied White-eye ◊  Zosterops chloris   A few in the hotel garden near Labuan Bajo (sumbavensis).

Ashy-bellied White-eye ◊  Zosterops citrinella   Endemic. Common on Sumba and lowland Timor.

Ashy-bellied White-eye ◊ [Flores W-e]  Zosterops [citrinella] unicus   Endemic. The yellow-bellied white-eye of Flores.

Short-tailed Starling  Aplonis minor

Javan Myna (introduced)  Acridotheres javanicus

Orange-sided Thrush ◊ (Orange-banded T)  Geokichla peronii   Endemic. Easily seen on Rote and Timor.

Chestnut-capped Thrush ◊  Geokichla interpres   Great views of at least six individuals on Flores.

Chestnut-backed Thrush ◊  Geokichla dohertyi   Endemic. Seen on Sumba, Timor and Flores; best on the former.

Island Thrush ◊ [Timor I T]  Turdus [poliocephalus] schlegelii   Endemic. Small numbers at Gunung Mutis, Timor.

Sumba Brown Flycatcher ◊  Muscicapa segregata   Endemic. A good year, with at least five noted and seen well.

Timor Blue Flycatcher ◊ (T Warbling-flycatcher)  Eumyias hyacinthinus   Endemic. Common.

Flores Jungle Flycatcher ◊ (F Warbling-flycatcher)  Eumyias oscillans   Endemic. Three seen and others heard.

Sumba Jungle Flycatcher ◊ (S Warbling-flycatcher)  Eumyias stresemanni   Endemic. Five seen. Easy this time.

Flores Shortwing ◊  Brachypteryx floris   Endemic. Several seen well on the way to Golo Lusang.

Little Pied Flycatcher  Ficedula westermanni   Small numbers on Timor (mayri).

Snowy-browed Flycatcher  Ficedula hyperythra   Three at Gunung Mutis, Timor (clarae).

Rufous-chested Flycatcher  Ficedula dumetoria   On Flores: one at Rana Mese and several at Puarlolo (nominate).

Sumba Flycatcher ◊  Ficedula harterti   Endemic. Thankfully, Martin found us one at Langgaliru.

Black-banded Flycatcher ◊  Ficedula timorensis   Endemic. Best seen near Lelogama, lower slopes of G. Timau.

Pied Bush Chat  Saxicola caprata   Sumba (francki); Rote & Timor (pyrrhonotus); Flores & Komodo (fruticola).

White-bellied Bush Chat ◊ (Timor Bushchat)  Saxicola gutturalis   Endemic. Pretty common on Rote and Timor.

Golden-rumped Flowerpecker ◊  Dicaeum annae   Endemic. Common on Flores.

Thick-billed Flowerpecker ◊ [Tenggara F]  Dicaeum [agile] obsoleta   Endemic. Three individuals on Sumba (tincta).

Black-fronted Flowerpecker ◊  Dicaeum igniferum   Endemic. Common on Flores.

Blue-cheeked Flowerpecker ◊ (Red-chested F)  Dicaeum maugei   Endemic. Common on Timor.

Blood-breasted Flowerpecker ◊ [Flores F]  Dicaeum [sanguinolentum] rhodopygiale   Endemic. 5 at Golo Lusang.

Blood-breasted Flowerpecker ◊ [Sumba F]  Dicaeum [sanguinolentum] wilhelminae   Endemic. Common.

Blood-breasted Flowerpecker ◊ [Timor F]  Dicaeum [sanguinolentum] hanieli   Endemic. A male at Lelogama.

Brown-throated Sunbird (Plain-t S)  Anthreptes malacensis   Sumba (rubrigena) and Flores (convergens).

Olive-backed Sunbird [Ornate S]  Cinnyris [jugularis] ornatus

Apricot-breasted Sunbird ◊  Cinnyris buettikoferi   Endemic. Common enough on Sumba.

Flame-breasted Sunbird ◊  Cinnyris solaris   Endemic. Common on Timor and Flores.

Eurasian Tree Sparrow  Passer montanus

Sunda Zebra Finch ◊  Taeniopygia guttata   Endemic. Widespread. 

Timor Sparrow ◊  Padda fuscata   Endemic. 40-50 seen on Timor, with many juveniles.

Scaly-breasted Munia  Lonchura punctulata   Sumba (sumbae); Timor & Flores (blasii).

Black-faced Munia ◊  Lonchura molucca  Two on both Timor and Flores (propinqa).

White-headed Munia ◊  Lonchura maja   Non-leader. A dozen at Denpasar Airport.

Pale-headed Munia ◊  Lonchura pallida   Good numbers on Sumba and Timor.

Five-colored Munia ◊  Lonchura quinticolor   Near-endemic. Small numbers on Sumba and Timor.

Tricolored Parrotfinch ◊  Erythrura tricolor   Near-endemic. Seen well on Timor on multiple occasions.

Mount Mutis Parrotfinch ◊ (Timor P)  Erythrura sp. nov.   Endemic. c.10 at Fatumnasi, with some smart males.

Red Avadavat  Amandava amandava   Small numbers at Bipolo, Timor (flavidiventris).

Eastern Yellow Wagtail  Motacilla tschutschensis   Heard-only. One at L. Sotimori.

Paddyfield Pipit  Anthus rufulus



Wild Boar (Indian W B)  Sus scrofa   Several on Komodo, where it is considered native.

Timor Deer Rusa timorensis   Small numbers on Komodo.

Spinner Dolphin  Stenella longirostris   One off Rote, and a few probables en route to Komodo.

Long-tailed Macaque (Crab-eating M)  Macaca fascicularis 

Brown Rat (introduced)  Rattus norvegicus

Sumban Leaf-nosed Bat  Hipposidorus sumbae   Appears to be the only bat of this size on Sumba.  

Large Flying Fox  Pteropus vampyrus   The typical flying fox seen on Sumba and Rote, at least.  



Green Sea Turtle  Chelonia mydas   One during the return from Komodo.  

Boschma’s Gliding-lizard (B Flying Dragon)  Draco boschmai  Two on Komodo.  

Tokay Gecko  Gekko gecko   Regularly heard throughout and seen several times.  

Flat-tailed House Gecko  Hemidactylus platyurus   Sumba at least.  

Komodo Dragon  Varanus komodoensis   At least five of these famous giant monitor lizards on Komodo.      


Asian Common Toad (introduced)  Duttaphrynus melanostictus   Seen on Sumba and Flores, at least.  

Paddy Field Frog  Fejervarya limnocharis   Timor.      


Haliphron Birdwing  Troides haliphrone naias   Sumba.  

Silver Birdwing  Troides plato   Timor.  

Peranthus Peacock  Papilio peranthus     

Common Mormon  Papilio polytes   Kisol.  

Tailed Jay  Graphium agamemnon   Sumba.  

Common Grass Yellow  Eurema hecabe   Mount Mutis.  

Orange Gull  Cepora judith   Kisol.  

Timor Gull  Cepora laeta   Fatumnasi.  

Caper Gull  Cepora perimale   Komodo.  

Psyche  Leptosia nina     

Common Red Flash  Rapala iarbus   Sumba.  

Common Pierrot  Castalius rosimon   Kisol.  

Pea Blue (Long-tailed B)  Lampides boeticus  

Transparent 6-line Blue  Nacaduba kurava  

Silver Forget-me-not  Catochrysops panormus   Timor.  

Common Sailer Neptis hylas   Kisol.  

Short-banded Sailer  Phaedyma columella   Komodo.  

Common Sargeant  Athyma perius   Sumba.  

Commander  Moduza procris   Sumba.  

Club Beak  Libythea myrrha   Sumba.  

Northern Argus  Junonia erigone   Timor.  

Chocolate Pansy  Junonia iphita   Flores at least.  

Blue Tiger  Tirumala limniace   Kisol at least.  

Swamp Tiger  Danaus affinis  

Striped Tiger  Danaus genutia  

‘Timor’ Lacewing  Cethosia lamarcki  

Staudinger’s Nawab  Polyura alphius   One; Pagal-Gapong Road.   

Malay Cruiser  Vindula dejone  

Long-branded Blue Crow  Euploea algea   Timor.  

Dart  Taractocera sp.   Kisol.  

Spotted Demon  Notocrypta feisthamelii   Kisol.      


Red Sprite  Pseudagrion pilidorsum   Camplong.  

Damsel  Rhinocypha pagenstecheri   Camplong. Lesser Sundan endemic.  

Slender Skimmer  Orthetrum sabina  

Orange Skimmer  Orthetrum testaceum   Timor and Komodo.  

Indigo Dropwing  Trithemis festiva   Camplong.  

Chalky Percher  Diplacodes trivialis   Sumba at least.  

Swampwatcher  Potamarcha congener   Timor.      


Migratory Locust  Locusta migratoria   An amazing swarm near Lewa, Sumba.