19 November - 4 December 2022

by Craig Robson

Over 100 Indian Subcontinent endemics and near-endemics were seen, out of a trip total of 314 species, during our latest tour of these popular South Asian destinations, including a clean-sweep on South Andaman. Numerous highlights included Painted Bush Quail, Sri Lanka Frogmouth, Nilgiri and Andaman Wood Pigeons, Malabar Imperial Pigeon, Andaman Crake, Andaman Serpent-Eagle, Andaman Scops, Spot-bellied Eagle and Mottled Wood Owls, Malabar Flameback, Indian Pitta, White-bellied Minivet, White-bellied and Andaman Treepies, Indian Black-lored Tit, Yellow-throated Bulbul, Malabar Lark, Western Crowned and Booted Warblers, Nilgiri and Palani Laughingthrushes, Rufous Babbler, Nilgiri and White-bellied Blue Robins, Nilgiri Thrush, White-bellied, Rusty-tailed, Kashmir and Black-and-orange Flycatchers, Jerdon’s Leafbird, and Nilgiri Pipit. The 20 species of mammal that we observed included Asian Elephant, a superb pack of Dhole, Blackbuck, the immense Gaur, and Nilgiri Tahr. Additionally, there were nearly 70 species of butterflies, nearly 20 dragonflies, and 12 reptiles.

Once we had all met-up at Port Blair Airport on South Andaman, we made our way to our hotel, tucked-in by the ocean, and prepared ourselves for the afternoons birding. We had four and a half days to find all the endemics here, so it made for comfortable birding. Much of our time was spent to the south of town, around Chidiyatapu. Exploring various areas of forest along the roadside and at the Biological Park, we found Andaman Coucal, Andaman Wood Pigeon, Andaman Green Pigeon, Andaman Woodpecker, Andaman Drongo, Andaman Treepie, Andaman Bulbul, White-headed Starling, Andaman Shama, and Andaman Flowerpecker, as well as the more wide-ranging Long-tailed Parakeet. At nightfall, we added Andaman Nightjar and Hume’s and Andaman Boobooks. A short ferry ride was required to transport us to Khartang Reserved Forest, where Andaman Cuckoo-Dove, Andaman Crake and Andaman Cuckooshrike were all eventually tracked down. Andaman Serpent Eagle proved to be our trickiest endemic, but thanks to our driver, we had great views of one perched at nearby Mount Harriet; where Andaman Crake also showed much better. Three more endemic owls were found at more localised sites, and all showed well: Andaman Masked, Andaman Scops, and Walden’s Scops (the latter still lumped in Oriental). Ograbraj Wetlands proved to be the best wetland location, with around 200 Andaman Teal, as well as many other interesting marsh and open country birds, such as Ruddy-breasted Crake, a range of migratory shorebirds, Indian (or Clamorous) Reed Warbler, Black-browed Reed and Pallas’s Grasshopper Warblers, and Red-throated and Richard’s Pipits.

The following morning, we flew back to Chennai and then onwards to Coimbatore, before driving up to our hotel in Ooty, in the Nilgiri Hills. Several hulking great Gaur were in the hotel grounds that evening and had to be shooed-away by staff. We were up for dawn, birding the hotel environs and along the road nearby. Five Painted Bush Quails were well received, as were Nilgiri Laughingthrush, Indian Blackbird, the amazing Black-and-orange Flycatcher, and Nilgiri Blue Robin. At Ooty Lake, we found the smart White-spotted Fantail, and an unexpected male Kashmir Flycatcher. We descended the Nilgiris, and continued on to Jungle Hut, close to Mudumalai National Park, with Red-headed Vulture, Malabar Grey Hornbill, and Nilgiri Flowerpecker bagged en route. In the afternoon, we were led by excellent local guide Sidha around the Murugan Temple Hill area. An excellent variety of birds, in mixed habitats, included Indian Peafowl, Grey Francolin, Indian Swiftlet, Brown-capped Pygmy and Yellow-crowned Woodpeckers, Black-rumped Flameback, a pair of White-naped Woodpeckers, Plum-headed Parakeet, Indian Pitta, Orange Minivet, Black-headed Cuckooshrike, White-bellied Drongo, Malabar Lark, Hill Swallow, Yellow-billed Babbler, Indian Nuthatch, Malabar Starling, Indian Robin, Purple-rumped Sunbird, and White-browed Wagtail. After nightfall, he somehow managed to show us four species of nightjar (Jungle, Jerdon’s, Indian and Savanna) without using playback, and we also lucked-in on a superb pack of Dhole and a group of Blackbuck.

We still had a full day and a morning to explore various sites around Jungle Hut, and the outskirts of Mudumalai NP. Our local guides knew all the good places and we had a very successful birding experience. Oriental Scops, Spot-bellied Eagle and Brown Fish Owls were all seen well in daytime, and Sudheesh managed to find us the tricky Nilgiri Thrush. We also added Red Spurfowl, Grey Junglefowl, Jungle Bush Quail, Blue-faced Malkoha, Yellow-wattled Lapwing, White-rumped Vulture, White-cheeked Barbet, Streak-throated Woodpecker, a rather too brief pair of White-bellied Minivets, Indian Paradise Flycatcher, Jerdon’s Bush Lark, wintering Booted Warbler and Hume’s Whitethroat, Indian Scimitar Babbler, Brown-cheeked Fulvetta, Indian Blue Robin, Malabar Whistling Thrush, and Jerdon’s Leafbird (after a lot of effort!).

We returned to Ooty for another overnight stay, before continuing our journey southwards to Munnar in the High Range, crossing the Kerala border in the process. Large Grey Babbler and Jacobin Cuckoo were noted en route and, once at the outskirts of town, we birded some patches of roadside forest near some tea-stalls. Nilgiri Wood Pigeon, Yellow-browed Bulbul, Brown-breasted Flycatcher, Blue-capped Rock Thrush and Western Crowned Warbler were among the species that popped up. The next morning, in order to visit Eravikulam National Park, we rode up a narrow road in and official park bus along with other visitors. Despite our best efforts we weren’t to be the first on the scene, and visitors are now only allowed to walk along the road at the top. Fortunately, this did not prevent us from finding some of our targets. At the top level, despite the hordes, we had good views of the endemic Nilgiri Tahr, Palani Laughingthrush, Malabar Whistling Thrush, and Nilgiri Flycatcher. Further afield, in the vicinity of Lockhart Gap, we finally found the much-wanted Nilgiri Pipit and White-bellied Blue Robin, as well as Dusky Crag Martin and Southern Hill Myna.

The following morning saw us winding our way downhill towards our hotel close to Periyar National Park. A site for the restricted-range Yellow-throated Bulbul was visited along the way. The birds were hard to find here, and it was seeming like a waste of time, until Heidi miraculously spotted a pair quietly feeding in some bushes. Our first Loten’s Sunbirds were also seen. At Periyar, we had a day and a half to find the specialities. Exploring various trails at the edge of the park with our allotted guide, during both afternoons, we enjoyed Grey-fronted Green Pigeon, Jungle Owlet, Malabar Barbet, Blue-winged Parakeet, and White-bellied Treepie, as well as Jungle and the more localised Rufous Babblers. Elephants are an ever-present delight and danger here, and we were lucky enough to encounter some working their way through a patch of bamboo. Further afield at Thekkady Boat Landing, the very knowledgeable Raj Kumar guided us for the morning. Thanks to his skills we found Malabar Imperial Pigeon, Chestnut-winged Cuckoo, Fork-tailed Drongo-Cuckoo, Malabar Trogon, Malabar Grey Hornbill, Malabar Woodshrike, Indian Black-lored Tit, and White-bellied Blue and Rusty-tailed Flycatchers.

From Periyar, we took the back roads to our final destination at Thattekad, currently perhaps the best-known and birdiest place in the south. On the way there, we birded along the excellent Neriamangalam Painavu Road, and we were to make several return visits here. Highlights in the roadside forest included Red Spurfowl, Malabar Flameback, Indian Golden Oriole, the tricky Grey-headed Bulbul (but fleetingly), Flame-throated Bulbul, Dark-fronted and Rufous Babblers, and Crimson-backed Sunbird. Around Thattekad itself, we were guided to a number of sub-locations in search of our various specialty targets, with this year’s haul highlighted by Sri Lanka Frogmouth, Mottled Wood Owl, Grey-headed Bulbul (again fleetingly), and Black-throated Munia.

Our time in South India ended the following morning, as we drove the relatively short distance to Kochi (Cochin) Airport and connected with our onward flights home.









Lesser Whistling Duck  Dendrocygna javanica

Indian Spot-billed Duck (Burmese S-b D)  Anas poecilorhyncha

Northern Pintail  Anas acuta

Andaman Teal ◊  Anas albogularis   Near-endemic. Maximum of 200 at Ograbraj, S Andaman.

Indian Peafowl  Pavo cristatus   Endemic.

Red Spurfowl ◊  Galloperdix spadicea   Endemic. Pairs at Jungle Hut and Periyar NP.

Grey Junglefowl ◊  Gallus sonneratii   Endemic.

Grey Francolin  Ortygornis pondicerianus   Endemic.

Jungle Bush Quail ◊  Perdicula asiatica   Endemic. A male at Jungle hut.

Painted Bush Quail ◊  Perdicula erythrorhyncha   Endemic. A total of 7 in the High Range

Great Eared Nightjar  Lyncornis macrotis   Heard-only.

Jungle Nightjar ◊ (Indian J N)  Caprimulgus indicus   Endemic. One near Jungle Hut.

Jerdon’s Nightjar ◊  Caprimulgus atripennis   Endemic. Ditto.

Andaman Nightjar ◊  Caprimulgus andamanicus   Endemic. Four seen on S Andaman.

Indian Nightjar (I Little N)  Caprimulgus asiaticus   One near Jungle Hut.

Savanna Nightjar  Caprimulgus affinis   Ditto.

Sri Lanka Frogmouth ◊ (Ceylon F)  Batrachostomus moniliger   Endemic. A roosting bird at Thattekad.

Crested Treeswift  Hemiprocne coronata

Plume-toed Swiftlet ◊  Collocalia affinis

Indian Swiftlet ◊  Aerodramus unicolor   Endemic.

Edible-nest Swiftlet ◊  Aerodramus fuciphagus

Brown-backed Needletail (B-throated N, Brown N)  Hirundapus giganteus

Asian Palm Swift  Cypsiurus balasiensis

Alpine Swift  Tachymarptis melba

Little Swift  Apus affinis

Greater Coucal  Centropus sinensis

Andaman Coucal ◊  Centropus andamanensis   Endemic. At least five seen and many heard.

Blue-faced Malkoha ◊  Phaenicophaeus viridirostris   Endemic. One near Jungle Hut.

Chestnut-winged Cuckoo  Clamator coromandus   Two performed at Periyar; a tour write-in.

Jacobin Cuckoo (Pied C)  Clamator jacobinus

Asian Koel (Common K)  Eudynamys scolopaceus

Asian Emerald Cuckoo  Chrysococcyx maculatus   Non-leader. One at Mount Harriet, S Andaman.

Violet Cuckoo  Chrysococcyx xanthorhynchus

Banded Bay Cuckoo  Cacomantis sonneratii   Heard-only.

Fork-tailed Drongo-Cuckoo ◊  Surniculus dicruroides   Endemic. One seen Periyar; heard at Thattekad.

Common Hawk-Cuckoo  Hierococcyx varius   Heard-only. Near-endemic.

Indian Cuckoo  Cuculus micropterus   Heard-only.

Rock Dove  Columba livia

Nilgiri Wood Pigeon ◊  Columba elphinstonii   Endemic. Three seen well near Munnar.

Andaman Wood Pigeon ◊  Columba palumboides   Endemic. Two at Chidiyatapu.

Eurasian Collared Dove  Streptopelia decaocto

Red Collared Dove  Streptopelia tranquebarica

Spotted Dove  Spilopelia chinensis

Laughing Dove  Spilopelia senegalensis

Andaman Cuckoo-Dove ◊  Macropygia rufipennis   Endemic. Just one seen well at Khartang RF.

Common Emerald Dove  Chalcophaps indica

Grey-fronted Green Pigeon ◊  Treron affinis   Endemic.

Andaman Green Pigeon ◊  Treron chloropterus   Endemic. Four seen and a couple more heard.

Yellow-footed Green Pigeon  Treron phoenicopterus

Green Imperial Pigeon  Ducula aenea

Malabar Imperial Pigeon  Ducula cuprea   Endemic. One seen really well at Periyar.

Common Moorhen  Gallinula chloropus

Eurasian Coot (Common C)  Fulica atra

Grey-headed Swamphen (G-h Gallinule)  Porphyrio poliocephalus

Ruddy-breasted Crake  Zapornia fusca

Andaman Crake ◊  Rallina canningi   Endemic. Seven seen and as many heard. Seen very well.

White-breasted Waterhen  Amaurornis phoenicurus

Little Grebe  Tachybaptus ruficollis

Yellow-wattled Lapwing ◊  Vanellus malabaricus

Red-wattled Lapwing  Vanellus indicus

Pacific Golden Plover  Pluvialis fulva

Tibetan Sand Plover  Charadrius atrifrons

Eurasian Whimbrel  Numenius phaeopus

Eurasian Curlew  Numenius arquata

Curlew Sandpiper  Calidris ferruginea

Long-toed Stint  Calidris subminuta

Pin-tailed Snipe  Gallinago stenura

Common Snipe  Gallinago gallinago

Common Sandpiper  Actitis hypoleucos

Green Sandpiper  Tringa ochropus

Common Redshank  Tringa totanus

Marsh Sandpiper  Tringa stagnatilis

Wood Sandpiper  Tringa glareola

Common Greenshank  Tringa nebularia

Oriental Pratincole  Glareola maldivarum

Asian Openbill  Anastomus oscitans

Woolly-necked Stork  Ciconia episcopus

Oriental Darter  Anhinga melanogaster

Little Cormorant  Microcarbo niger

Great Cormorant  Phalacrocorax carbo

Black-headed Ibis  Threskiornis melanocephalus

Glossy Ibis  Plegadis falcinellus

Yellow Bittern  Ixobrychus sinensis

Cinnamon Bittern (Chestnut B)  Ixobrychus cinnamomeus

Black-crowned Night Heron  Nycticorax nycticorax   Heard-only.

Striated Heron (Little H)  Butorides striata

Indian Pond Heron  Ardeola grayii

Eastern Cattle Egret  Bubulcus coromandus

Grey Heron  Ardea cinerea

Purple Heron  Ardea purpurea

Great Egret  Ardea alba

Intermediate Egret  Ardea intermedia

Little Egret  Egretta garzetta

Pacific Reef Heron (Eastern Reef Egret)  Egretta sacra

Black-winged Kite  Elanus caeruleus

Crested Honey Buzzard (Oriental H B)  Pernis ptilorhynchus

Black Baza  Aviceda leuphotes

White-rumped Vulture (Indian W-backed V)  Gyps bengalensis   A total of nine were logged this year.

Red-headed Vulture ◊  Sarcogyps calvus   Two en route from Ooty to Jungle Hut.

Crested Serpent Eagle  Spilornis cheela

Andaman Serpent Eagle ◊  Spilornis elgini   Endemic. A total of three seen. Best one perched at Mt Harriet.

Changeable Hawk-Eagle  Nisaetus [cirrhatus] limnaeetus

Changeable Hawk-Eagle ◊ (Crested H-E)  Nisaetus [cirrhatus] cirrhatus

Black Eagle  Ictinaetus malaiensis

Greater Spotted Eagle ◊  Clanga clanga   A couple near Jungle Hut; a tour write-in.

Crested Goshawk  Accipiter trivirgatus

Shikra  Accipiter badius

Sparrowhawk  Accipiter nisus

Black Kite  Milvus [migrans] govinda

Brahminy Kite  Haliastur indus

White-bellied Sea Eagle  Haliaeetus leucogaster

Lesser Fish Eagle ◊  Haliaeetus humilis

Himalayan Buzzard ◊  Buteo refectus

Andaman Masked Owl ◊ (A Barn O)  Tyto deroepstorffi   Endemic. One seen well at dusk in Port Blair.

Brown Boobook (B Hawk-Owl)  Ninox scutulata  One spotlighted at Thattekad.

Hume’s Boobook ◊ (H’s Hawk-Owl)  Ninox obscura   Endemic. Six seen and more heard. Super close views.

Andaman Boobook ◊ (A Hawk-Owl)  Ninox affinis   Endemic. Two seen well at Chidiyatapu.

Spotted Owlet  Athene brama

Jungle Owlet ◊  Glaucidium radiatum   Near-endemic. Two seen at Periyar, and one at Thattekad.

Andaman Scops Owl ◊  Otus balli   Endemic. Brilliant views of one on South Andaman.

Oriental Scops Owl  Otus sunia   One roosting near Jungle Hut.

Oriental Scops Owl ◊ (Walden’s S O)  Otus [sunia] modestus   Endemic. Two seen well, south of Port Blair.

Spot-bellied Eagle-Owl ◊ (Forest E-O)  Bubo nipalensis   One seen really well near Jungle Hut.

Brown Fish Owl  Ketupa zeylonensis   Two roosting near Jungle Hut.

Mottled Wood Owl ◊  Strix ocellata   Near-endemic. Super views of one after dark at Thattekad.

Malabar Trogon ◊  Harpactes fasciatus   Endemic. Three seen.

Eurasian Hoopoe (Common H)  Upupa epops

Great Hornbill (G Pied H)  Buceros bicornis   Heard-only.

Malabar Grey Hornbill ◊  Ocyceros griseus   Endemic. Four seen at scattered locations; others heard.

Indian Roller  Coracias benghalensis

Oriental Dollarbird (Common D)  Eurystomus orientalis

Stork-billed Kingfisher  Pelargopsis capensis

White-throated Kingfisher (W-breasted K)  Halcyon smyrnensis

Collared Kingfisher  Todiramphus chloris

Blue-eared Kingfisher  Alcedo meninting   One on South Andaman (endemic rufigastra).

Common Kingfisher  Alcedo atthis

Blue-bearded Bee-eater  Nyctyornis athertoni

Asian Green Bee-eater (Little G B-e)  Merops orientalis

Blue-tailed Bee-eater  Merops philippinus

Chestnut-headed Bee-eater  Merops leschenaulti

White-cheeked Barbet ◊  Psilopogon viridis   Endemic. Common.

Malabar Barbet ◊  Psilopogon malabaricus   Endemic. Five logged at Periyar. Heard more widely.

Coppersmith Barbet  Psilopogon haemacephalus

Eurasian Wryneck  Jynx torquilla   One near Jungle Hut.

Speckled Piculet  Picumnus innominatus

Heart-spotted Woodpecker ◊  Hemicircus canente

Brown-capped Pygmy Woodpecker ◊ (Indian P W)  Yungipicus nanus   Endemic.

Yellow-crowned Woodpecker ◊ (Y-fronted Pied W)  Leiopicus mahrattensis

Freckle-breasted Woodpecker ◊ (Spot-b Pied W)  Dendrocopos analis

White-bellied Woodpecker  Dryocopus javensis   A pair at Periyar (hodgsonii).

Andaman Woodpecker ◊  Dryocopus hodgei   Endemic. Just a single male seen; others heard.

Lesser Yellownape  Picus chlorolophus

Streak-throated Woodpecker ◊  Picus xanthopygaeus

Common Flameback  Dinopium javanense

Black-rumped Flameback  Dinopium benghalense   Near-endemic.

Malabar Flameback  Chrysocolaptes socialis   Endemic. A handful in the Thattekad area.

White-naped Woodpecker ◊ (W-n Flameback)  Chrysocolaptes festivus   A pair seen well near Jungle Hut.

Rufous Woodpecker  Micropternus brachyurus

Common Kestrel  Falco tinnunculus

Peregrine Falcon  Falco peregrinus

Plum-headed Parakeet ◊  Psittacula cyanocephala   Endemic.

Red-breasted Parakeet  Psittacula alexandri

Long-tailed Parakeet ◊  Psittacula longicauda   Ten logged on South Andaman (tytleri).

Blue-winged Parakeet ◊ (Malabar P)  Psittacula columboides   Endemic. Not uncommon in South India.

Alexandrine Parakeet  Psittacula eupatria

Rose-ringed Parakeet (Ring-necked P)  Psittacula krameri

Vernal Hanging Parrot  Loriculus vernalis

Indian Pitta ◊  Pitta brachyura   Endemic. Three seen in the Jungle Hut area.

Bar-winged Flycatcher-shrike (Pied F-s)  Hemipus picatus

Malabar Woodshrike  Tephrodornis sylvicola   Endemic. We caught up with a single bird at Periyar NP.

Common Woodshrike  Tephrodornis pondicerianus

Common Iora  Aegithina tiphia

White-bellied Minivet ◊  Pericrocotus erythropygius   Endemic. A pair near Jungle Hut.

Small Minivet  Pericrocotus cinnamomeus

Orange Minivet ◊  Pericrocotus flammeus   Endemic. Common in South India.

Scarlet Minivet  Pericrocotus speciosus  Small numbers on South Andaman.

Large Cuckooshrike  Coracina macei

Andaman Cuckooshrike ◊  Coracina dobsoni   Endemic. Four at Khartang RF.

Black-headed Cuckooshrike ◊  Lalage melanoptera   Near-endemic.

Mangrove Whistler  Pachycephala cinerea   One in suitable habitat south of Port Blair.

Brown Shrike  Lanius cristatus

Bay-backed Shrike ◊  Lanius vittatus

Long-tailed Shrike  Lanius schach

Black-hooded Oriole  Oriolus xanthornus

Indian Golden Oriole ◊  Oriolus kundoo   Endemic. Small numbers Neriamangalam Painavu Rd – Thattekad.

Black-naped Oriole  Oriolus chinensis

Bronzed Drongo  Dicrurus aeneus

Greater Racket-tailed Drongo  Dicrurus paradiseus

Andaman Drongo ◊  Dicrurus andamanensis   Endemic. Common.

Ashy Drongo  Dicrurus leucophaeus

White-bellied Drongo ◊  Dicrurus caerulescens   Endemic.

Black Drongo  Dicrurus macrocercus

White-spotted Fantail ◊ (Spot-breasted F)  Rhipidura albogularis   Endemic. Three seen well.

White-browed Fantail  Rhipidura aureola

Black-naped Monarch (B-n Blue M)  Hypothymis azurea

Indian Paradise Flycatcher  Terpsiphone paradisi

Rufous Treepie  Dendrocitta vagabunda

White-bellied Treepie ◊  Dendrocitta leucogastra   Endemic. Many seen; Periyar – Thattekad.

Andaman Treepie ◊  Dendrocitta bayleii   Endemic. Common.

House Crow  Corvus splendens

Eastern Jungle Crow  Corvus levaillantii

Indian Jungle Crow  Corvus culminatus   Endemic.

Grey-headed Canary-flycatcher  Culicicapa ceylonensis

Cinereous Tit (Grey Tit)  Parus cinereus

Indian Black-lored Tit ◊ (I Yellow T)  Machlolophus aplonotus   Endemic. A single lucky sighting at Periyar.

Jerdon’s Bush Lark ◊  Mirafra affinis   Endemic. A couple eventually found near Jungle Hut.

Malabar Lark ◊  Galerida malabarica   Endemic. Great views of five near Jungle Hut.

Yellow-browed Bulbul ◊  Acritillas indica   Endemic. Good numbers in the SW.

Square-tailed Bulbul ◊ (S-t Black B)  Hypsipetes ganeesa   Endemic.

Grey-headed Bulbul ◊  Brachypodius priocephalus   Endemic. Several seen but a struggle this year.

Andaman Bulbul  Brachypodius fuscoflavescens   Endemic. Fairly common.

Flame-throated Bulbul ◊  Rubigula gularis   Endemic. Good numbers this year in the SW.

White-browed Bulbul ◊  Pycnonotus luteolus   Endemic. A pair near the next species.

Yellow-throated Bulbul ◊  Pycnonotus xantholaemus   Endemic. A pair at the roadside en route to Periyar.

Red-whiskered Bulbul  Pycnonotus jocosus

Red-vented Bulbul  Pycnonotus cafer

Sand Martin  Riparia riparia

Dusky Crag Martin  Ptyonoprogne concolor   Five near Lockhart Gap.

Pacific Swallow (House S)  Hirundo tahitica

Hill Swallow ◊  Hirundo domicola   Endemic. Good numbers in the SW.

Barn Swallow  Hirundo rustica

Red-rumped Swallow  Cecropis daurica

Yellow-browed Warbler  Phylloscopus inornatus   Several on South Andaman.

Tickell’s Leaf Warbler  Phylloscopus affinis

Dusky Warbler  Phylloscopus fuscatus

Two-barred Warbler (T-b Greenish W)  Phylloscopus plumbeitarsus   A couple on South Andaman.

Greenish Warbler  Phylloscopus trochiloides

Large-billed Leaf Warbler  Phylloscopus magnirostris

Western Crowned Warbler ◊  Phylloscopus occipitalis   Near-endemic. One near Munnar.

Clamorous Reed Warbler ◊ (Indian R W)  Acrocephalus [stentoreus] brunnescens   South Andaman.

Black-browed Reed Warbler  Acrocephalus bistrigiceps   Three seen and others heard at Ograbraj.

Blyth’s Reed Warbler  Acrocephalus dumetorum

Thick-billed Warbler  Arundinax aedon

Booted Warbler ◊  Iduna caligata   About five near Jungle Hut.

Pallas’s Grasshopper Warbler (Rusty-rumped W)  Helopsaltes certhiola   Several at Ograbraj, S Andaman.

Zitting Cisticola  Cisticola juncidis

Grey-breasted Prinia  Prinia hodgsonii

Plain Prinia  Prinia inornata

Common Tailorbird  Orthotomus sutorius

Hume’s Whitethroat ◊  Curruca althaea   One briefly near Jungle Hut.

Yellow-eyed Babbler  Chrysomma sinense

Indian White-eye  Zosterops palpebrosus

Dark-fronted Babbler ◊  Dumetia atriceps   Endemic. A handful along the Neriamangalam Painavu Rd.

Indian Scimitar Babbler ◊  Pomatorhinus horsfieldii   Endemic. Widespread.

Puff-throated Babbler  Pellorneum ruficeps

Brown-cheeked Fulvetta  Alcippe poioicephala

Nilgiri Laughingthrush ◊  Montecincla cachinnans   Endemic. Six logged.

Palani Laughingthrush ◊  Montecincla fairbanki   Endemic. At least 15 seen.

Large Grey Babbler ◊  Argya malcolmi   Endemic. Five before we reached the Kerala border.

Rufous Babbler ◊ (Indian R B)  Argya subrufa   Endemic. Several groups Periyar-Thattekad.

Jungle Babbler  Argya striata   Endemic.

Yellow-billed Babbler ◊  Argya affinis   Endemic. Common around Jungle Hut etc.

Asian Fairy-bluebird  Irena puella

Velvet-fronted Nuthatch  Sitta frontalis

Indian Nuthatch ◊  Sitta castanea   Endemic. A total of three near Jungle Hut.

Common Hill Myna  Gracula religiosa

Southern Hill Myna ◊ (Lesser H M)  Gracula indica   Endemic. Widespread in the SW.

Jungle Myna  Acridotheres fuscus

Common Myna  Acridotheres tristis

White-headed Starling ◊ (Andaman W-h S)  Sturnia erythropygia   Endemic. Common.

Malabar Starling ◊ (M White-headed S)  Sturnia blythii   Endemic. Frequently seen.

Brahminy Starling  Sturnia pagodarum

Nilgiri Thrush ◊  Zoothera neilgherriensis   Endemic. Thattekad. One in a huge bamboo clump.

Orange-headed Thrush  Geokichla citrina   Several at various locations.

Indian Blackbird ◊ (Nilgiri B)  Turdus simillimus   Endemic. Quite a few in the Nilgiris.

Indian Robin (I Black R)  Copsychus fulicatus   Endemic.

Oriental Magpie-Robin  Copsychus saularis

White-rumped Shama  Copsychus malabaricus

Andaman Shama ◊  Copsychus albiventris   Endemic. Often heard; a couple seen.

Asian Brown Flycatcher  Muscicapa dauurica

Brown-breasted Flycatcher ◊  Muscicapa muttui   Scattered winterers in the SW.

White-bellied Blue Flycatcher ◊  Cyornis pallidipes   Endemic. Two nice males at Periyar.

Tickell’s Blue Flycatcher  Cyornis tickelliae   Endemic.

Blue-throated Blue Flycatcher  Cyornis rubeculoides

Verditer Flycatcher  Eumyias thalassinus

Nilgiri Flycatcher ◊  Eumyias albicaudatus   Endemic. Small numbers seen well in the SW.

Indian Blue Robin  Larvivora brunnea

Nilgiri Blue Robin ◊  Sholicola major   Endemic. Two or three males in the Nilgiris.

White-bellied Blue Robin ◊  Sholicola albiventris   Endemic. Six logged for the High Range.

Malabar Whistling Thrush ◊  Myophonus horsfieldii   Endemic. Quite common.

Rusty-tailed Flycatcher ◊  Ficedula ruficauda   Endemic. Three winterers in the SW.

Taiga Flycatcher (Red-throated F)  Ficedula albicilla

Kashmir Flycatcher ◊  Ficedula subrubra   Endemic. A smart male wintering at Ooty Lake.

Black-and-orange Flycatcher ◊  Ficedula nigrorufa   Endemic. A male seen well at Ooty; others heard.

Blue Rock Thrush  Monticola solitarius   Non-leader.

Blue-capped Rock Thrush  Monticola cinclorhyncha   Endemic.

Amur Stonechat  Saxicola stejnegeri   One at Ograbraj. South Andaman.

Pied Bush Chat  Saxicola caprata

Jerdon’s Leafbird ◊  Chloropsis jerdoni   Endemic. After much effort, a pair near Jungle Hut.

Golden-fronted Leafbird  Chloropsis aurifrons

Thick-billed Flowerpecker  Dicaeum agile  One near Jungle Hut.

Pale-billed Flowerpecker ◊  Dicaeum erythrorhynchos   Near-endemic. Several near Jungle Hut.

Nilgiri Flowerpecker ◊  Dicaeum concolor   Endemic. Not uncommon at times.

Andaman Flowerpecker ◊  Dicaeum virescens   Endemic. Four seen and several heard.

Purple-rumped Sunbird ◊  Leptocoma zeylonica   Endemic.

Crimson-backed Sunbird ◊ (Small S)  Leptocoma minima   Endemic. Best at Neriamangalam Painavu Rd.

Purple Sunbird  Cinnyris asiaticus

Olive-backed Sunbird  Cinnyris jugularis

Loten’s Sunbird ◊  Cinnyris lotenius   Endemic. Occasional in the SW.

Little Spiderhunter  Arachnothera longirostra

Yellow-throated Sparrow (Chestnut-shouldered Petronia)  Gymnoris xanthocollis

House Sparrow  Passer domesticus

Scaly-breasted Munia  Lonchura punctulata

Black-throated Munia ◊  Lonchura kelaarti   Endemic. Thattekad; good numbers at roosts.

White-rumped Munia  Lonchura striata

Forest Wagtail  Dendronanthus indicus

Eastern Yellow Wagtail  Motacilla tschutschensis

Grey Wagtail  Motacilla cinerea

White Wagtail  Motacilla alba   Non-leader.

White-browed Wagtail ◊  Motacilla maderaspatensis  Near-endemic.

Richard’s Pipit  Anthus richardi

Paddyfield Pipit  Anthus rufulus

Red-throated Pipit  Anthus cervinus   Small numbers on South Andaman.

Nilgiri Pipit ◊  Anthus nilghiriensis   Endemic. Two tracked-down near Lockhart Gap.



Asian Elephant (indian E)  Elaphus maximus   Three near Jungle Hut and one at Periyar.

Dhole  Cuon alpinus   A pack of eight at Murugan Temple Hill.

Wild Boar  Sus scrofa

Spotted Deer (Chital)  Axis axis

Northern Red Muntjac (Indian M)  Muntiacus vaginalis

Sambar Deer  Rusa unicolor

Blackbuck  Antilope cervicapra   Eight after dark at Murugan Temple Hill.

Gaur (Indian Bison)  Bos gaurus   Total of 27 logged at several locations.

Nilgiri Tahr  Nilgiritragus hylocrius   8 at Eravikulam NP and 1 scoped from Neriamangalam Painavu Rd.

Indian Flying Fox  Pteropus giganteus

Bonnet Monkey  Macaca radiata

Southern Plains Gray Langur  Semnopithecus dussumieri

Nilgiri Langur  Semnopithecus johnii   Not uncommon in the SW.

Tufted Gray Langur  Semnopithecus priam   Just five en route from Ooty to Munnar.

Indian Hare (Black-naped H)  Lepus nigricollis

Common Palm Squirrel (Three-striped P S)  Funambulus palmarum

Five-striped Palm Squirrel (Northern Palm S)  Funambulus pennantii

Western Ghats Striped Squirrel  Funambulus tristriatus

Indian Giant Squirrel  Ratufa indica

Grizzled Giant Squirrel (Grizzled Indian S)  Ratufa macroura


Common Water Monitor  Varanus salvator   Chidiyatapu etc., South Andaman.

Indian Chameleon  Chamaeleo zeylanicus   Mudumalai NP.

Roux’s Forest Lizard  Monilesaurus rouxii   Heidi photographed one along the Neriamangalam Painavu Rd.

Rock Agamid  Psammophilus dorsalis   Thattekad.

Common Green Forest Lizard  Calotes calotes   Thattekad.

Oriental Garden Lizard  Calotes versicolor   At the hotel, South Andaman.

Western Ghats Flying Lizard  Draco dussumieri   2-3 Thattekad and Neriamangalam Painavu Road.

Short-crested Bay Island Forest Lizard  Coryphophylax subcristatus   Chidiyatapu.

Andaman Day Gecko  Phelsuma andamanensis   Mount Harriet.

Dussumier’s Litter Skink  Sphenomorphus dussumieri   Thattekad.

Large-scaled Viper  Craspedocephalus macrolepis   Eravikulam NP.

Hump-nosed Viper  Hypnale hypnale   Sudheesh found us one at Thattekad.



Common Birdwing  Troides helena   Mount Harriet, South Andaman.

Andaman Mormon  Papilio mayo   South Andaman.

Blue Mormon  Papilio polymnestor   Scattered in S India.

Common Mormon  Papilio polytes   S Andaman.

Paris Peacock  Papilio paris   Thattekad.

Common Rose  Pachliopta aristolochiae   Periyar NP.

Andaman Clubtail  Losaria rhodifer  Chidiyatapu, S Andaman.

Common Bluebottle  Graphium sarpedon   Periyar NP.

Glassy Tiger  Parantica aglea   Chidiyatapu, S Andaman and Periyar NP.

Blue Tiger  Tirumala limniace   Periyar NP.

Andaman Tree Nymph  Idea agamarschana   Mount Harriet.

Malabar Tree Nymph  Idea malabarica   A beauty at Periyar NP.

Psyche  Leptosia nina   Widespread.

Yellow Orange Tip  Ixias pyrene andamana   Chidiyatapu.

Great Orange Tip  Hebomoia glaucippe   Widespread.

Common Gull  Cepora nerissa   Periyar NP.

Common Grass Yellow  Eurema hecabe   Widespread.

Common Jezebel  Delias eucharis   Thattekad.

Dark Wanderer  Pareronia ceylanica naraka   S Andaman.

Long-banded Silverline  Cigaritisi lohita   Chidiyatapu.

Peablue  Lampides boeticus   Lockhart Gap.

Common Yamfly  Loxura atymnus   Mount Harriet.

Common Pierrot  Castalius rosimon   Jungle Hut.

Quaker  Neopithecops zalmora   Jungle Hut.

Indian Cupid (Small C)  Chilades parrhasius   En route to Munnar.

Gram Blue  Euchrysops cnejus   Thattekad.

Common Cerulean  Jamides celeno   South Andaman.

White Hedge Blue  Udara akasa   Lockhart Gap.

Purple Leaf Blue  Amblypodia anita   Kallarkutty-Pambla Road.

Lesser Grass Blue  Zizina otis   Peerless Resort, S Andaman.

Andaman Crow  Euploea andamanensis   Mount Harriet.

Common Crow  Euploea core   Thattekad at least.

Plain Tiger  Danaus chrysippus   Periyar NP.

Grey Pansy  Junonia atlites   Widespread.

Chocolate Pansy  Junonia iphita   Periyar to Thattekad.

Lemon Pansy  Junonia lemonias   Periyar Tiger Reserve.

Grey Pansy  Junonia atlites   Periyar NP.

Common Evening Brown  Melanitis leda   Breakfast stop en route to Munnar.

Clipper  Parthenos sylvia   Common on South Andaman.

Small Leopard  Phalantga alcippe   S Andaman.

Common Leopard  Phalantga phalantha   Jungle Hut.

Southern Sullied Sailer  Neptis clinia   Mount Harriet NP, South Andaman.

Common Sailer  Neptis hylas   Widespread.

Common Lascar  Pantoporia hordonia   Widespread.

Andaman Viscount  Tanaecia cibaritis   Forest sites on South Andaman.

Common Palmfly  Elymnias hypermnestra cottonis   South Andaman, at the hotel etc.

Common Yeoman  Cirrochroa tyche   Mount Harriet NP.

Tamil Yeoman  Cirrochroa thais   Periyar NP.

Rustic  Cupha erymanthis   Periyar NP to Neriamangalam Painavu Road,

Malabar Glad-eye Bushbrown  Mycalesis junonia   Periyar NP.

Dingy Bushbrown  Mycalesis perseus   South Andaman.

Smooth-eyed Bushbrown  Orsotriaena medius   Neriamangalam Painavu Rd, Kerala.

Palni Bushbrown  Telinga davisoni   Rajmalai NP.

Red-disc Bushbrown  Telinga oculus   Eravikulam NP.

Whitebar Bushbrown  Mycalesis anaxias   Periyar NP.

Common Bushbrown  Mycalesis janardana   Periyar NP.

Common Four-ring  Ypthima huebneri   Jungle Hut.

Bamboo Treebrown  Lethe europa   Mount Harriet, S Andaman and Periyar NP.

Andaman Oakleaf  Kallima albofasciata   Chidiyatapu.

Sahyadri Dartlet  Oriens concinna   Rajmalai NP.

Dart   Potanthus sp.   Neriamangalam Painavu Road.

Paintbrush Swift  Baoris farri   Neriamangalam Painavu Road.

Banded Redeye  Gangara lebadea   Mount Harriet.

Indian Ace  Halpe homolia   Jungle Hut.

Suffused Snow Flat  Tagiades gana   Mount Harriet, South Andaman.

Pied Flat  Tagiades japetus   Chidiyatapu, South Andaman.

Chestnut Bob  Iambrix salsala   Jungle Hut.



Snouted Tiger Moth  Asota plana   Caterpillar at Periyar NP.

Drury’s Jewel  Cyclosia papilionaris   Chidiyatapu.

Fruit-sucking Moth  Eudocima homaena   Amazing caterpillars at Periyar.



Clear-winged Forest Glory  Vestalis gracilis   Mount Harriet NP.

Green Metalwing  Neurobasis chinensis   Jungle Hut.

Stream Ruby  Heliocypha bisignata   Jungle Hut.

Forest Spreadwing  Lestes dorothea   Jungle Hut.

Coromandel Marsh Dart  Ceriagrion coromandelianum   Jungle Hut.

Yellow Featherlegs  Copera marginipes   Chidiyatapu.

Travancore Bambootail  Esme mudiensis   Neriamangalam Painavu Rd.

Blue Midget  Mortonagrion aborense   Chidiyatapu.

Common Parasol  Neurothemis fluctuans  Chidiyatapu.

Russet Percher  Neurothemis fulvia   Periyar to Thattekad.

Common Picturewing  Rhyothemis variegata   Periyar NP.

Emerald-banded Skimmer  Cratilla lineata   Mount Harriet, S Andaman.

Chalky Percher  Diplacodes trivialis   Jungle Hut.

Brown-backed Red Marsh Hawk  Orthetrum chrysis   Widespread.

Slender Skimmer  Orthetrum sabina   S Andaman.

Slender Blue Skimmer  Orthetrum luzonicum   Periyar NP.

Wandering Glider  Pantala flavescens   Widespread.

Twister  Tholymis tillarga   South Andaman.